Glucose Intolerance and Cholesterol Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Glucose Intolerance and Cholesterol Deck (24)
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1

what is diabetes mellitus

abnormal production or use of insulin from the pancreas

2

what are the two types of problems associated with diabetes mellitus

production problem - not enough beta cell production, or abnormal release

use problems - peripheral tissue receptor dysfunction (resistance), or abnormal hormones that influence insulin or blood glucose

3

what are the two types of diabetes mellitus

type 1
onset early
requires insulin (deficient)
production deficit

type 2
onset later
less severe
overweight
tissue resistance

4

normal glucose tolerance is dependent on what

liver conversion to glycogen

5

high levels of glucose suppress what (glycogen)

what does epinephrine do

glycogen conversion to glucose

epinephrine causes glycogen conversion to glucose

6

glucagon is released during what

hypoglycemia

7

what increases glycogen levels

HOW

cortisol, cortisone

converts amino acids into glycogen which converts to glucose

8

gluconeogenesis is produced from what

fats and proteins

9

what are the symptoms of glucose intolerance

polydipsia, polyuria, ketonuria, acetone breath, neurological adrengergic, weight loss (classic)

10

what is whipples triad

responses to hypoglycemia

symptoms, low values, response to therapy

11

what should your cholesterol levels be

low risk, moderate, high

< 200

low risk - <200
moderate - 200-240
high risk - > 240

12

what should your LDL levels be

< 130

optimal - <100
above optimal - 100-129
borderline high - 130-159
high - 160-189

13

what should your HDL levels be

Males > 45
Females > 55

14

what should your TAG levels be

Males < 160
Females < 135

15

what is a small amount of ingested fats, but overtime they lead to serious consequences

what is the source

cholesterol

animal fat

16

risk of what increases or decreases significantly within the normal cholesterol value

as risk increases, what is needed to know

heart or vascular disease


need to know what type of cholesterol is present

17

what are the risk factors for increased LDLs

smoking
age - M>45 and F>55
BP > 140/90
family history of HD

18

what is LDL equation

LDL = total cholesterol - (HDL + (TRIG/5))

19

less than 40 for males and less than 50 for females HDL indicates what

increase risk of HD

20

above 60 for HDL is considered what

protective

21

cholesterol/HDL ratio should be

5 for males
4.4 for females

22

triglycerides come from what source

ingested fats
better known as chylomicrons

23

excess carbs CHO convert into __ by the liver

VLDLs

24

TG/HDL ratio should be

less than 3.5