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Flashcards in Liver Function Deck (36)
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1

what is the other name for AST

serum glutamic oxalocetic transamniase

SGOT

2

what is the other name for ALT

serum glutamic pyruvic transamniase

SGPT

3

AST is found primarily where

liver
heart
kidney
pancreas
muscle

4

AST is elevated when

significant tissue damage

5

what is the normal value for AST

7-40

6

which enzyme is found in liver, heart, kidney, pancreas, and muscle

AST

7

ALT is elevated when

hepatocellular necrosis*
alcohol liver damage
kidney infection
myocardial infarction

8

what enzyme is primarily elevated during hepatocellular necrosis

ALT

9

what is the normal value for ALT

5-36

10

LDH stands for what

lactic acid dehydrogenase

11

LDH is elevated when

cellular death or leakage from the cell
hemolysis --> prehepatic

if other tests are elevated it may indicate -->
myocardial infarction
pulmonary infarction

12

what is the normal values for LDH

50-150

13

ALP is elevated when

biliary obstruction*
blastic bone disease
pregnancy
skeletal growth

14

what is the normal values for ALP

30-120

15

what does GGT stand for

gama glutamyl transpeptidase

16

GGT is elevated when

cholangitis
liver disease
occult bile duct obstruction
alcohol abuse
drug abuse

17

total bilirubin is elevated when

liver disease
hemolytic anemia
drugs

18

what are the lab results seen in prehepatic jaundice

BLOOD
increase unconjugated bilirubin
increase albumin

URINE and POOP
increase or normal urobilinogen - yellow urine
normal steracobilinogen

19

what are the lab results seen in intrahepatic jaundice

BLOOD
increase unconjugated and conjugated bilirubin - BOTH
big increase AST and ALT
slight increase ALP

URINE
increase bilirubin - dark urine

20

what are the lab results seen in posthepatic jaundice

BLOOD
increase conjugated bilirubin
big increase in ALP
slight increase in AST and ALT

URINE and POOP
increase bilirubin in urine - dark urine


urobilinogen and steracobilinogen -->
incomplete obstruction = decrease
complete obstruction = absent

21

what causes prehepatic, intrahepatic, and post hepatic jaundice

prehepatic - hemolysis

intrahepatic - impaired conjugation, viral hepatitis, drugs, cirrhosis, tumors of liver

post hepatic - obstruction of bile ducts, gallstones, and tumors of bile ducts or pancreas

22

what are the symptoms of hemolytic jaundice

weakness, dark urine, anemia, leterus, splenomegaly

23

what gives feces its color

stercobilinogen

24

what are the different types of obstructive jaundice

intrahepatic obstruction - hepatitis, PBC (primary biliary cirrhosis), drugs

extrahepatic obstruction - stones, stricture/stenosis, compression, inflammation, tumors of ampulla of vater, choledochal cyst, biliary atresia

25

what are the causes of intrahepatic jaundice

gilberts syndrome - decreased GT activity - unable to conjugate bilirubin

grigler najjar syndrome - absence of UDPGT activity - unable to conjugate bilirubin

familial disorders - dubin johnson syndrome and rotor syndrome

hepatitis, cirrhosis, drugs

26

intrahepatic jaundice symptoms

weakness, loss of appetite, hepatomegaly, palmar erythema, spider angiolectasis

27

what are the clinical features of cholestasis

pain due to malignancy, disease, or stretching of liver capsule

fever due to ascending cholangitis

palpable or tender gall bladder

enlarged smooth liver

28

what does the proportion of conjugated bilirubin to total bilirubin indicate

<20% - prehepatic, gilberts, crigler najjar

20-40% of total - hepatic

40-60% of total - hepatic or post hepatic

>50% of total - post hepatic

prehepatic is mostly unconjugated so low % and post hepatic is conjugated so high % of conjugated/total bilirubin

29

unconjugated bilirubin is transported with what in the liver

ligandin or Z protein

30

unconjugated bilirubin is conjugated with what to form conjugated bilirubin

glucouronic acid