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Flashcards in Na and K Deck (46)
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1

most of NA is intracellular or extracellular

Extracellular

2

NA is regulated by what 3 hormones

what does each do to NA

aldosterone - conserves or reabsorbs NA

natriuretic peptide - excretes NA

ADH - balances water

3

what lab value is considered hypernatremia

above 140 mEq/L

4

what is hypernatremia caused by

rarely NOT caused by excess sodium intake - drinking seawater or salty liquids like soy sauce

but RATHER caused by decrease in free water in the body aka DEHYDRATION

5

if the amount of water ingested consistently is below the amount of water lost, the serum sodium levels will __

increase leading hypernatremia

6

even a small rise in serum sodium concentration above normal ranges results in what

strong sensation of thirst,
increase in free water intake,
results in correction of abnormality

7

hypernatremia most often occurs in what people

infants
impaired mental status individuals
elderly

(inability to get water when needed)

8

what are the symptoms of hypernatremia

thirst
dry mucous membranes
agitation
restlessness
weakness
irritability
neuromuscular excitability
edema

9

hypernatremia is seen in increased intake or decreased loss due to what diseases or conditions

steroids
laxatives
cough medicine
cushings syndrome
hyperaldosteronism
excessive sweating
diarrhea
dehydration

10

what is the lab value that is considered hyponatremia

below 125 mEq/L

11

hyponatremia is due to what

excess body water or intake (OVERHYDRATION) which dilutes the serum sodium

12

hyponatremia is often a complication of medial illness such as __

congestive heart failure

syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic
hormone (SIADH)

polydipsia

exercise associated hyponatremia

13

exercise associated hyponatremia is seen in what people

marathon runners
endurance events

14

hyponatremia below 125 has what symptoms

hyponatermia below 115 has what symptoms

below 125 - weakness

below 115 - confusion and lethargy

15

hyponatremia is seen in decreased intake or increased loss of Na which is seen in what conditions

diuretics
carbamazepine
ACEI
NSAIDs
vomiting/diarrhea
chronic renal insufficiency
addisons disease
excessive water intake
hyperglycemia
CHF
peripheral edema
SIADH

16

most of K is intracellular or extracellular

intracellular

17

Na+ and K+ are both considered what

cations

18

what are the normal K serum levels

4 mEq/L

19

what ion is important in maintaining membrane potentials in neuromuscular tissue

K

20

which ion is said to have minor changes that cause major effects

K

21

what affect does aldosterone have on K

decreases levels of K by causing excretion

22

extreme hyperkalemia is a medical emergency due to the risk of what

fatal abnormal arrhythmias

23

what are the symptoms of hyperkalemia

nausea/vomiting
diarrhea
malaise
palpitations
muscle weakness

24

during the medical history intake for a patient with hyperkalemia, what should one focus on

kidney disease and medication use

25

hyperkalemia can be due to what

increased dietary intake
addisons
hypoaldosteronism
aldosterone inhibiting diuretics - spironolactone
crush syndromes
hemolysis
infection

26

what is hypokalemia

condition in which the concentration of K in the blood is low

27

mild hypokalemia often presents as what

without symptoms or small elevation of blood pressure

rarely arrhythmias

28

moderate hypokalemia often presents as what

muscular weakness
myalgia
muscle cramps
constipation

disturbs skeletal and smooth muscle

29

moderate hypokalemia is indicated by what lab level

2.5-3 mEq/L

30

what are the symptoms of hypokalemia

weakness
paralysis
hyporeflexia
ileus