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Flashcards in Urinalysis and Basal Metabolic Profile Deck (25)
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1

what are the reasons to take a urinalysis

- diagnose urinary tract disease
- monitor urinary tract disease
- detect metabolic disease
- easy, cheap, rapid info

2

what are characteristics of morning specimen

- patient must void before going to bed in evening; gives a 6-8 hr sample of urine which is accurate to function of 24 hr sample
- more concentrated at night during fasting so it more likely to yield results
- not the most convenient
- must be preserved if not delivered to lab within 2 hrs

3

what are characteristics of random specimen

- more convenient in clinical setting
- performed when substance testing has little diurnal variation
- method of choice for drug screening

4

what are characteristics of timed collection

some substances are variably excreted over 24-48 hr period requiring larger sample size for accurate measures

ex - hormones, proteins, electrolytes

5

what are the methods of collection

routine
midstream/clean catch
24 hr

6

what information does blood urea nitrogen provide us with

- rough measurement of renal function

7

free ammonia from protein metabolism is combined in the liver to yield what

what happens to the urea

urea

excreted from the kidney in the urine

8

most renal diseases interfere with what

what happens if its unilateral

interferes with excretion of urea and other substances

if unilateral, the normal kidney can compensate to yield a normal BUN

9

what is it called when there is an increase in nitrogenous products in the blood

azotemia

10

what are the causes of pre-
renal issues resulting in abnormal excretion

pre-renal - accumulation before the kidney
- excessive catabolism of protein
- CHF
- Shock
- Dehydration

simply, either decreased blood volume or renal circulation OR increased protein intake or endogenous catabolism

decreased blood volume
decrease renal circulation
increased protein
increase catabolism of protein

11

what are the causes of renal issues resulting in abnormal excretion

chronic diffuse bilateral disease or damage

ex - acute tubular necrosis (caused by hypertension or shock)

12

what are the causes of post-renal issues resulting in abnormal excretion

post-renal - obstruction occurring after the kidney
- ureteral obstruction
- benign prostatic hyperplasia
- bladder tumors

13

how is creatinine produced

produced by creatine phosphate dephosphorylation in skeletal muscle

14

what is creatinine dependent on

does it fluctuate

muscle mass

fluctuates very little daily

15

when is creatinine elevated

only elevated by renal disorders

affected a little by liver function

16

what rises first, BUN or creatinine

what does this suggest

BUN rises first, creatinine rises later and slower

since creatinine increases later it suggests a chronic problem

17

creatinine is increased in what conditions

- decreased renal function
- rhabdomylolysis
- gigantism/acromegaly

18

what is consisted in a basal metabolic proflile

glucose
calcium
sodium
potassium
chloride
CO2
BUN
creatinine

19

what is consisted in the comprehensive metabolic profile

basal metabolic profile
renal function
proteins
liver function
anemia
lipids

20

what is basal metabolic profile used for

what is comprehensive metabolic profile used for

BMP - ER necessity

CMP - appropriate for the office setting

21

what test values are evaluated for renal function

BUN and creatinine

22

what test values are evaluated for protein

total protein
albumin
globulin
A/G ratio

23

what test values are evaluated for liver function

ALT - aka SGPT
AST - aka SGOT
ALP
bilirubin
indirect bilirubin
LDH

24

what test values are evaluated for anemia

iron
TIBC
ferritin

25

what test values are evaluated for lipids

cholesterol
triglycerides
HDL
LDL