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Flashcards in H&N Deck (111):
1

location of right common carotid

behind right SC joint

2

common carotids bifurcate at

c4

3

carotid massage purpose

can alleviate supraventricular tachycardia

4

where and what is carotid body. innervation

CN IX innervation. O2. outside at carotid bifurcation

5

where ICC enter skull

carotid canal

6

branches of external carotid

SALFOPMS
superior thyroid, ascending pharyngeal, lingual, facial, occipital, post auricular, maxillary, superior tempora

7

parotid vasculatur

artery - maxillary and superior temporal
vein - retromandibular vein

8

what foramen does vertebral arteries go through

c1-6

9

whats in carotid triangle and its borders

borders - digasrtic, SCM, omohyoid
inside - larynx, pharynx, thyroid, cervical plexus, vagus and hypoglossal

10

layers of scalp

skin, loose ct, aponeurosis, loose CT with vessels, periosteum

11

blood supply of scalp

occipital, superior temporal, posterior auricular from ECA, supratrochlear and supraorbital from ICA. all anastamose

12

dura and skull blood supply

MMA

13

cavernous sinus location and contents

above pterygoid plexus
contains ICA and abducens. In lateral wall CN3, 4, 5a, 5b

14

position of IJV and EJV in neck

IJV goes under SCM. EJV goes on top

15

where does thoracic duct and right lymphatic duct enter veins

thoracic duct - left IJV and left subclavian junction

16

innervations of extraocular muscles

LR6SO4R3

17

innervation of LPS and constrictor pupillae of eye

LPS - somatic
constrictor - PS ciliary ganglion from edinger westphal nucleus

18

CN3 palsy

down and out, dilated pupils, ptosis

19

CN4 palsy

diplopia on looking down and in

20

CN 6 damage how?

increaes ICP

21

motor innervation of CN V c

temporalis, masseter, medial pterygoids, digastric - mastication muscles

22

innervation of CNVb

upper lip, mucosa of nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, palate

23

innervation of CNVc sensory

temples, cheek, chin, inner cheek, anterior 2/3rds of tongue

24

CN 7 innervation

taste anterior 2/3 (chorda tympani), facial expression, stapedius
PS of lacrimal, submandibular and sublingual glands

25

course of facial nerve

travels through IAM to facial canal to stylomastoid foramen

26

what is sensorineural hearing loss

damage to inner ear or nerve

27

what is conductive hearing loss

problem with conducting sound waves to cochlea

28

what is calorix reflex and used for

cold or warm water into EAM causes nystagmus if not brain dead

29

innervation of CN IX

stylopharyngeus, parotid (PS), carotid body, carotid sinus, pharynx, middle ear, posterior 1/3 tongue taste

30

CN IX test

gag reflex

31

CN X sensation

external ear, EAM, eardrum, palatopharyngeus, salpingopharyngeus, pharyngeal constrictors, laryngeal muscles, palatoglossus, PS of heart and abdomen

32

CN X motor

intrinsic larynx and pharynx (cricothyroid, salpingopharyngeus, levator veli palatini, palatoglossus, palatopharyngeus), bronchi and GI smooth muscle

33

acessory innervation

SCM and trapezius

34

hypoglossal innervation

genioglossus, hypoglossus, styloglossus, intrinsic muscles of tongue

35

what side does tongue and uvula deviate to

tongue towards uvula away

36

What are the 3 extra classes of special cranial nerves? What do they do?

Special visceral efferents – muscles derived from pharyngeal arches (CNV, VII, IX, X)
Special somatic afferents – equilibration, hearing, and sight
Special visceral afferents – taste

37

give PS ganglia and nuclei and what they innervate

COPS - 3977
Ciliary ganglion - edinger westphal nucleus - sphincter pupillae, ciliary muscle
Otic ganglion - inf salivatory nucleus - parotid
pterygopalatine - sup salivatory nucleus - lacrimal, nasal, nasopharynx, palate
submandibular - sup salivatory - submandibular and sublingual

38

what is horners

damage to symp trunk. Miosis, ptosis (superior tarsal innervation), enophthalmos, anhydrosis

39

what are symp ganglioa of head and neck

sup mid and inf cervical ganglions

40

where is philtrum and palpebral fissure

philtrum between nose and mouth
palpebral fissure between eyelids

41

what is TMJ made of

mandibular fossa and articular tubercle and condyle of mandible

42

ligaments of TMJ

stylomandibular, lateral ligament, sphenomandibular ligament

43

muscles in mandible elevation and depression

elevation - temporalis, masseter, medial pterygoid
depression - digastric, mylohyoid, geniohyoid, lateral pterygoid

44

muscles in mandible protraction and retraction

protraction - masseters, lateral and medial pterygoid
retraction - temporalis, digastric

45

what prevents posterior displacement of mandible

posterior glenoid tubercle

46

what is clinical significance of infratemporal fossa

used for mandibular nerve block (dental)

47

bones of orbit

frontal, zygomatic, mandibular, lacrimal, ethmoid, sphenoid

48

fissures into orbit

SOF, IOF, optic foramen

49

what goes into SOF

large french tarts sit nakedly in anticipation of sweets
lacrimal, frontal, trochlear, superior oculomotor, nasociliary, inferior oculomotor, abducens, superior opthalmic vein, sympathetic

50

what goes into IOF

infraorbital artery vein nerve

51

what is orbital and blowout fracture. results??

orbital - fracture of bones on outer rim
blowout - partial herniation through inf or medial walls

both lead to increased ICP and exophthalmos

52

actions of eye muscles

sup rectus - elevates, adducts, intorts
inf rectus - depresses, adducts, extorts
sup oblique - depresses, intorts, abducts
inf oblique - elevates, extorts, abducts

53

arteries of eye and venous

artery - central artery, infraorbital, short and long ciliary
vein - superiro and inferior opthalmic, central vein

54

what is infraorbital a branch of

maxillary

55

why can infection of facial vein bad

connected to cavernous sinus, no valves in facial vein. Infection of face can lead to brain

56

what is tarsal, ciliary and lacrimal gland

ciliary and tarsal - seceretes meibum (oil) prevents evaportation of eyes tear film
lacrimal - aqueous layer of tear film

57

what muscles open and close eyelid

open - LPS and superior tarsal
clsoe - orbicularis oculi

58

what is bells palsy and symptoms

facial nerve palsy. self limited. paralysis of forehead and therefore no wrinkles

59

how differentiate between stroke and bells palsy

stroke is forehead sparing

60

auricle anatomy

see book
concha, helix, antihelix, EAM, lobule, tragus, antitragus

61

how cauliflower ear

haematoma between cartilage and perichondrium leads to necrosis

62

TM anatomy

umbo, handle of lmalleus, pars flacida and pars tensa

63

mid ear muscles and innervations

stapedius (facial), tensor tympani (mandibular nerve)

64

what is acute otitis media and otitis media with effusion. how differenite

AOM - inflammation of mid ear due to inabiliy to equalise, bulging TM
OME - negative pressure leads to effusion and sucking in of TM
both present wth conductive hearing loss but AOM has pain

65

how treat otitis media

grommets - small tubes placed in TM to allow equalisation

66

complications of AOM

mastoiditis leading to intracranial infecition. Damage to facial nerve.
Cholesteatoma - accumulation of dead squamous cells resulting in erosion of mid ear and bone via lytic enzymes

67

saccule and utricle function

saccule - head movements in vertical plane
utricle - head movements in horizontal plane

68

where endolymph and perilymph

perilymph in bony labyrinth
endolymph in membranous labyrinth

69

explain structure of cochlea

If cochlea is a hotdog. Scala vestibule is superior bun. Scala tympani is inferior bun. Hotdog is tectorial membrane surounded by scala media.
Oval to round window

70

what makes up septum of bone

vomer inferior, ethmoid superior, and septal cartilage

71

what is superior, middle, inferior concha made of

superior and middle - ethmoid
inferior concha own bone

72

name the nasal drainage

SENSE
semilunar hiatus (frontal, maxilary, ant ethmoid), ethmoidal bulla, nasolacrimal duct, sphenoid sinus, eustachian tube

73

arteris of nasal cavity

post and mid - sphenopalatine
inferior - greater palatine
sup and anterior - ethmoidal

74

nasal veins

facial vein, pterygoid plexus, cavernous sinus

75

commonest site of anterior epistaxis

keisselbachs plexus

76

innervation of nasal cavity

CN1,
septum and lateral wall - ophthalmic and maxillary
post and inferior - nasopalatine nerve
anterior and superior - anterior ethmoidal

77

what tests should you run in chronic epistaxis and how treat

test - bleeding abnormalitis
treat - lean forward and pinch cartilage. Can cauterise blood vessels, use nasal tampons

78

sensation of meninges

Vb

79

motor nerves from facial nerve

To Zanzibar By Motor Car Please
temporal, zygomatic, buccal, mandibular, cervical, posterior auricular

80

what is torticolis

asymmetrical head/neck position poss due to shortened SCM

81

what is pagets disease of bone

misshapen bones. localised.

82

where jugulo-omohyoid and jugulodigastric found. what do they drain

corner of IJV and omohyoid or digastric
jugulo-omohyoid - tongue, oral cavity, trachea, oesophagus, thyroid
jugulo-digastric - tonsils and tongue

83

anatomy of eye

see book
vitreous humor, iris, lens, ciliary body

84

where do extraocular muscles attach to

common tendinous ring

85

what is name for dilated pupil and causes

mydriasis - physiological, glaucoma

86

what is a stye and meibomian cyst

cyst - blocked tarsal gland
stye - blocked ciliary gland

87

where carotid palpated at

c6

88

what is superior and inferior portion of middle ear called and what sinuses contianed

epitympanic recess - mastoid antrum entrance
tympanic cavity - eustachian tube

89

what is exocytosis of ear canal

bony growth in EAM

90

what CNs can refer pain to ear

facial, trigeminal, glossopharyngeal, vagus

91

innervation of TM?

auricular branch of vagus and glossopharyngeal

92

where would you block anterior sensory 2/3 of tongue?

inferior alveolar nerve block

93

causes of sensorineural hearing loss

menieres, gentamicin

94

development of pituitary gland

downward outgrowth of forebrain known as infundibulum. Grows towards rathkes pouch (from roof of mouth). Rathkes becomes ant pit. Infundibulum becomes post pit and connecting stalk

95

development of tongue

4 swellings - lateral swelling and tuberculum impar (1), cupola (2,3) and epiglottal swelling (4)
lateral overgrows TI, 3rd cupola overgrows 2nd. Apoptosis aside from lingual frenulum

96

innervation of tongue, sensory + taste

ant 2/3 sens - mandibular
ant 2/3 taste - chorda tympani (facial)
posterior 1/3 taste and sense - glossopharyngeal

97

thyroid development

descends from foramen cecum of tongue via thyroglossal duct

98

what is 1st arch syndrome

failure of colonisation of 1st arch with neural crest cells. hyoplasia of mandible and facial bones

99

what is charge syndrome

CH7 mutation, no multipotent neural crest cells
Coloboma, Heart defects, Atresia of back of nasal passage, Retardation of growth and development, Genital hypoplasia, Ear defects

100

nasopharynx epithelia

ciliated pseudostratified. rest of pharynx squamous

101

what are the tonsils and where

pharyngeal (back of nasal cavity), palatine (palate), tubule tonsils (next to ustachian tube), lingual tonsils (base of tongue)

102

what is lymph drainage of palatine tonsils

jugulodigastric

103

what is stridor and stertor

stridor - lower airway obstruction. inspiratory or expiratory
stertor - upper airway obstruction. inspiratory only

104

what is rolling and sliding hernia

rolling - herniates away from oesophagus
sliding - herniates into oesophagus

105

infection between investing and visceral pretracheal. and posterior to prevertebral fascia. where go

first one - anterior mediastinum
2nd - erode through prevertebral fascia and into retropharyngeal space to fibrous pericardium

106

muscles of pharynx and innervations

stylopharyngeus - CNIX
salpingo and palatpharyngeus - CNX

107

where food can get stuck in mouth

vallecula, palatine tonsils, base of tongue

108

muscles of larynx function and innervation

all inferior laryngeal except cricothyroid
thyroarytenoid
posterior cricoarytenoid - abduct vocal folds
lateral cricoarytenoid - adduct vocal folds
transverse and oblique arytenoids - adducts arytenoid cartilage

109

suprahyoid muscles and innervation

stylohyoid (mandibular), digastric (ant = mandibular, post = facial), mylohyoid (mandibular), geniohyoid (C1)

110

infrahyoid muscles and innervation

sternohyoid, omohyoid, sternothyroid, thyrohoid
all C1-3

111

tongue musscles and innervation

genioglossus, palatoglossus (X), styloglossus, hypoglossus
all but P = XII