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Flashcards in HIV Deck (6):

What is the treatment for HIV?

Highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART): involves a combination of at least three drugs, typically two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) and either a protease inhibitor (PI) or a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). This combination both decreases viral replication but also reduces the risk of viral resistance emerging


Give examples of NRTIs + side effects

Nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI)
examples: zidovudine (AZT), didanosine, lamivudine, stavudine, zalcitabine

general NRTI side-effects: peripheral neuropathy
zidovudine: anaemia, myopathy, black nails
didanosine: pancreatitis


Give examples of NNRTIs + side effects

Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI)
examples: nevirapine, efavirenz

side-effects: P450 enzyme interaction (nevirapine induces), rashes


Give examples of PIs + side effects

Protease inhibitors (PI)
examples: indinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir

side-effects: diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, buffalo hump, central obesity, P450 enzyme inhibition
indinavir: renal stones, asymptomatic hyperbilirubinaemia
ritonavir: a potent inhibitor of the P450 system


When do you start antiretroviral therapy in HIV?

Start anti-retrovirals in HIV when CD4


What is the most common opportunistic infection in AIDS?
Describes it's clinical manifestation and treatment.

Pneumocyctis jiroveci pneumonia (used to be called pneumocystis carinii pneumonia PCP)

- unicellular eukaryote, generally classified as a fungus but some authorities consider it a protozoa
- all patients with a CD4 count