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Flashcards in HIV Deck (6):
1

What is the treatment for HIV?

Highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART): involves a combination of at least three drugs, typically two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) and either a protease inhibitor (PI) or a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). This combination both decreases viral replication but also reduces the risk of viral resistance emerging

2

Give examples of NRTIs + side effects

Nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI)
examples: zidovudine (AZT), didanosine, lamivudine, stavudine, zalcitabine

general NRTI side-effects: peripheral neuropathy
zidovudine: anaemia, myopathy, black nails
didanosine: pancreatitis

3

Give examples of NNRTIs + side effects

Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI)
examples: nevirapine, efavirenz

side-effects: P450 enzyme interaction (nevirapine induces), rashes

4

Give examples of PIs + side effects

Protease inhibitors (PI)
examples: indinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir

side-effects: diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, buffalo hump, central obesity, P450 enzyme inhibition
indinavir: renal stones, asymptomatic hyperbilirubinaemia
ritonavir: a potent inhibitor of the P450 system

5

When do you start antiretroviral therapy in HIV?

Start anti-retrovirals in HIV when CD4

6

What is the most common opportunistic infection in AIDS?
Describes it's clinical manifestation and treatment.

Pneumocyctis jiroveci pneumonia (used to be called pneumocystis carinii pneumonia PCP)

- unicellular eukaryote, generally classified as a fungus but some authorities consider it a protozoa
- all patients with a CD4 count