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Flashcards in Na and K Deck (46)
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31

what causes hypokalemia

hyperaldosteronism
dietary deficiency
licorice
cushings

32

Cl is the major intracellular/extracellular anion/cation

extracellular anion

33

Cl follows __ to support electrical neutrality

what follows Cl

Cl follows Na

water follows Cl
(affects water balance)

34

what is primarily associated with acid base balance

what also aids in acid base balance

how

CO2

Cl

if CO2 and H elevate, then biocarbonate moves out of cells and Cl moves into cells

35

hypo or hyperchloremia does not occur alone, but only with shifts of __ and __

Na and bicarbonate

36

what do you measure to evaluate CO2

h2c03
dissolved CO2
bicarbonate

37

what is the difference between cations and anions in the extracellular space

anion gap

38

how is anion gap calculated

(sodium + potassium) - (chloride + bicarbonate)

or

sodium - (chloride - bicarbonate)

39

what is anion gap used for

increased indicates what
decreased indicates what

used to determine metabolic acidosis

increases with acidosis, diarrhea, and kidney disease

decreases from alkalosis, vomiting, and hyperaldosteronism

40

what does osmolality measure

measures the dissolved particles in blood

41

as free water in the blood increases, particles __, and osmolality __

decrease

decrease

42

as free water in the blood decreases, particles ___, and osmolality __

increase

increase

43

low osmolality causes what

decrease secretion of ADH, which increases urine output, which raises osmolality

44

high osmolality causes what

increase secretion of ADH, which decreases urine output, which decreases osmolality

45

what are the most important solutes in blood

Na, glucose, BUN

46

how do you calculate osmolality

2Na + glucose/18 + BUN/2.8