Other cancers Flashcards Preview

Oncology + Palliative > Other cancers > Flashcards

Flashcards in Other cancers Deck (31):
1

Signs of melanoma

Change in size, shape or colour of moles. Crusting, bleeding Asymmetry, irregular border, colour variation, diameter >6mm

2

Treatment + grading used for melanoma

Breslow's grading

Surgical excision Chemo - interferon alpha, Melphalan Immunotherapy Biological therapy

3

Types of head and neck cancer

Squamous carcinoma (larynx, pharynx, nasopharynx, oral cavity) Thyroid Salivary gland

4

RF for head and neck cancer

Betel quid Salty fish, EBV HPV positivity

5

Red flag S+S of head and neck cancer

Hoarseness Dysphagia Odynophagia Unilateral Otalgia Enlarging neck lump Sore throat Stridor

6

Management for head and neck cancer

Early = radiotherapy or laser excision Late = radiotherapy + chemotherapy/ surgery

7

Nasopharyngeal cancer features

Normally SCC Epistaxis, epiohoria, anosmia, parasthesia in cheek

8

Oral cavity cancer features

SCC Related to smoking/ chewing tobacco Need extensive surgery due to lymphatic drainage

9

Characteristics of salivary gland tumours

80% in parotid, 80% benign Slowly enlarging painless mass Red flags: facial nerve weakness, ulceration of skin, intermittent pain, previous skin cancer or radiation

10

Types of high grade brain tumour

Gliomas (astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas + ependymomas) Glioblastoma multiforme Primary cerebral lymphomas Medulloblastomas

11

Types of low grade brain tumours

Meningiomas, acoustic neuromas, neurofibromas, pituitary tumours, pineal tumours, craniopharyngiomas

12

RF for brain tumours

Ionising radiation Immunosuppression Inherited syndrome (neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis)

13

Red flag symptoms of brain tumours

Severe, persistent early morning headaches Seizures Persistent N+V Diplopia Neuro defects of limbs Personality changes Papilloedema

14

Management of brain tumours

Surgery first line RT = external beam, gamma knife treatment Chemo that can cross BBB

15

Bladder cancer staging + main type

Usually TCC Ta = confined to epithelium T1 = Tumour in lamina propria T2 = Superficial muscle involved T3 = Deep muscle involved T4 = Invasion beyond bladder

16

RF for bladder cancer

Males Age Smoking Aromatic amines - dyes, paint, metal, leather, textiles Chronic cystitis Schistosomiasis

17

Red flags for bladder cancer

Painless haematuria Recurrent UTIs Voiding irritability

18

Investigations for bladder cancer

Cytoscopy with biopsy + USS

CT urogram

19

Management of bladder cancer

Diathermy via transurethral cytoscopy/ transurethral resection of bladder Chemo Late stage: radical cystectomy, adjuvant chemo

20

Pathology + types of renal cancer

Arises from proximal renal tubular epithelium Wilms, clear cell carcinoma (most common), papillary, chromophobe, collecting duct

21

RF for renal cancer

Smoking, obesity, HTN Males Dialysis, tuberous sclerosis, renal transplant recipients, cystic disease

22

Red flags for renal cancer

Haematuria, loin pain, abdo mass, anorexia, weight loss, pyrexia of unknown origin Paraneoplastic symptoms (neuromyopathy, anaemia, polycythaemia)

23

Management of renal cancer

Radical nephrectomy Biological therapies

24

What is the mayo prognostic risk score?

SSIGN Predicts survival for renal cancer

25

Types of testicular germ cell tumour + management

Teratomas or seminomas Treat with chemo

26

Types of ovarian germ cell tumour

Mature teratoma (benign) - usually in reproductive years, called a dermoid cyst, surgically remove Immature teratomas (cancerous) - girls + young women in early 20s, 3 grades - surgery + chemo

27

What are germ cell tumours outside ovaries and testicles?

Extragonadal germ cell tumours May arise from mediastinum Surgery + chemo

28

What are the oncological emergencies?

Neutropenic sepsis Metastatic spinal cord compression Hypercalcaemia Superior vena cava obstruction

29

What staging is used for cervical cancer?

FIGO

30

Causes of hypercalcaemia + management for each

With hypophosphataemia = PTH or PTHrP release = treat with bisphosphanates

W/o hypophosphataemia = likely to be osteolytic bone mets + release of osteoclast activating factor 

31

How are DEXA scan results presented?

As a graph or number to say whether pt is osteopenic or porotic