Tumour Markers Flashcards Preview

Oncology + Palliative > Tumour Markers > Flashcards

Flashcards in Tumour Markers Deck (22):
1

What is sensitivity?

Ability to detect those with disease

2

What is specificity?

Ability to detect those without disease

3

What are the classes of tumour markers?

Cell-surface glycoproteins
Oncofetal proteins
Hormones
Enzymes
Immunoglobulins
Nucleic acids

4

What are the cell surface glycoproteins?

Carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA)
CA125
CA19.9

5

What are the oncofetal proteins?

hCG
A-feto-protein (aFP)

6

What enzymes are tumour markers?

Acid phosphatase
Alkaline phosphatase
Lactate dehydrogenase
Neurone specific enolase
Intermediate metabolites
5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid
Vanillyl mandelic acid

7

What hormones are tumour markers?

Thyroglobulin,
Antidiuretic hormone,
Adrenocorticotrophic hormone

8

What immunoglobulins are tumour markers?

Bence Jones Protein
Light Chains

9

How are nucleic acids used as tumour markers?

RNA + DNA detected
Tumour specific (eg Philadelphia chromosome) or tissue specific (eg detection of tyrosinase expression in blood)

10

When can tumour markers be used for screening?

In high risk groups eg use of aFP to detect hepatocellular carcinoma in pts with hepatitis

11

What conditions cause a raise in CEA?

Colorectal!!

Pancreatic, gastric, breast, lung cancer
Smoking, IBS, hepatitis, pancreatitis, gastritis

12

When is CA125 raised?

Endometriosis, pregnancy, menstruation + ovarian cancer

13

What tumour markers are diagnostic in young males with widespread mets?

Serum LDH, aFP, BhCG
To diagnose chemo sensitive germ cell tumours

14

What does an aFP level >500 indicate?

Hepatocellular carcinoma or germ cell tumours (non-seminomatous testicular cancer)

15

How can you measure prognosis in testicular cancer?

Concentrations of hCG or aFP

16

How can you monitor response to chemo for germ cell tumours?

Concentrations of hCG + aFP

17

What is aFP?

Glycoprotein produced in normal fetal yolk sac, liver + intestines
Undetectable in normal individuals after 1 y/o

18

When is aFP raised?

Hepatitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, cancers containing yolk sacs (teratomas)
High levels = poor prognosis

19

When are immunoglobulins used as tumour markers?

Measure of paraproteinaemias (myeloma + Waldenstrom's macroglobulinaemia)
Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma

20

Where is the Bence Jones protein found + what does it indicate?

Measured in urine
Occurs in myeloma

21

What cancers are CA19.9 + CA15.3 linked to?

19.9 = pancreatic
15.3 = breast

22

What tumours cause a raise in Bombesin?

SCLC
Gastric
Neuroblastoma