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Flashcards in Child Development And Communication Deck (20)
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Define the biological idea of attachment in terms of child development.

Attachment is a biologically based system that functions to maintain proximity to the infants care-giver.


What behaviours are children predisposed to display as a result of attachment?

Proximity seeking behaviour

Contact maintaining behaviour


Around what age will children show signs of distress in the absence of 'key people'?

Around 7-8 months


What is the importance of attachment?

Attachment allows the infant to form a relationship with their primary care giver.


When is the critical period for first attachment?

During first year


During what period can separation cause problems to arise?

During first 4 years


What 3 phases can be seen in the behaviour of children separated from their primary care giver?

Protest (distress, look for mother)

Despair (withdrawn, signs of helplessness)

Detachment (more interested in surroundings, apathetic upon return of career)


What are the second two phases often mistaken for?



What behavioural changes can be caused by separation?

Anxiety / aggression / clinging

Bed wetting



What physical effects can separation have on children?

Less sleep


Less play


Separation at what age can cause the most distress?

6 months to 3 years


What implications may separation have on health outcomes?

Decreased adherence to treatment

Worse experience of pain if anxiety is high

Patients may suffer from adverse effects of stress


Give examples of good practice in hospitals to avoid the adverse effects separation

Allow parental/carer access

Allow attachment objects

Reassure child they are not being punished

Make environment like home

Provide stimulating toys

High quality substitute care

Continuity of staff


What are the four stages of Piaget's childhood development model, and at what ages do they occur?

Sensorimotor (0-2)

Pre-operational (2-7)

Concrete operational (7-12)

Formal operational (12+)


What are the features of the Sensorimotor stage?

Experience world through senses

Development of motor co-ordination

No abstract concepts

Develop awareness of where they 'end' and the world starts

Develop understanding of permanence around 8 months (understand that objects out of sight continue to exist)


What are the features of the Pre-operational stage?

Development of language, symbolic though, able to imagine things

Egocentricism - difficulty seeing things from other people's points of view

Lack concept of conservation

Classification by single feature


What are the features of the Concrete operational stage?

Think logically, but concrete rather than abstract

Understand conservation of number, mass, and weight

Can classify things by multiple features

Able to see things from another's perspective


What are the features of the Formal operational stage?

Abstract logic

Hypothetic-deductive reasoning


Outline Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development.

Cognitive development requires social interaction

Child learns as an 'apprentice', through shared problem solving

With able instruction, the child can achieve some increase in understanding (x+1)

There needs to be focus on the zone of proximal development (the +1 bit) i.e. The people around them


How can communication with children be improved?

Adapt consultation style to capacity of the child.

Younger children will not understand abstract concepts.

Some children may have a good knowledge of their condition if they are exposed to it regularly.

Use parents/carers to help communicate if appropriate

Use toys to catch attention or explain concepts