Flashcards in Health Behaviour and Motivational Interviewing Deck (37)
Define health related behaviour
Any behaviour that may promote good health or lead to illness
List the three learning theories
- Classical conditioning
- Operant conditioning
- Social learning theory
List the two cognition models
- Health belief model
- Theory of planned behaviour
Define classical conditioning
Behaviour based on association with other stimuli (behaviour becomes habit)
What is another name for classical conditioning?
Who gave the first example of this?
Pavlov and his dog
Briefly outline Pavlov's experiment with dogs
- A dog would be presented with food, causing the dog to salivate.
- A bell would be rang at the same time.
- After a while the dog would salivate on the ringing of the bell even without being presented with food.
- The behaviour of salivation became associated with the other stimulus.
Give examples of how responses can become classical condition with relation to Health Related Behaviour
- Anticipatory nausea in chemotherapy
- Phobias e.g. Fear of hospitals
What result does Classical conditioning have in Health Related Behaviour?
Behaviour is unconsciously paired with the environment or emotions
Define Operant conditioning
People or animals behaving as a result of the consequences of their actions in the same situation in the past (reinforcement by reward or punishment)
How is behaviour reinforced in operant conditioning?
By reward or removal of punishment
How is behaviour discouraged in Operant conditioning?
By punishment or removal of reward
How does operant conditioning negatively impact health related behaviour?
Unhealthy behaviours are often immediately rewarding and driven by the short term.
Define the Social learning theory
Behaviour can be based on our observations of other people's behaviour and see who gets rewarded and who gets punished
How does other people's behaviour influence our own?
Behaviour is focused on our desired goals/outcomes. We are motivated to perform behaviours that are "high value" or ones we believe we can re-enact.
Who can influence socially learned behaviour?
Family can often show us behaviour that we believe we can re-enact.
Celebrities play a key role in demonstrating "high value" behaviour.
What to social cognition models do?
They focus on cognitive factors in health-related behaviour - including: knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and expectations
Outline the Health Belief Model using a diagram
*Insert Diagram here*
Whet are the limitations of the Health Belief Model?
- Rationale and reasoning - often consequences are only thought about after the action.
- Decisions - habit, conditioned behaviour, and coercion can affect them.
- Doesn't consider emotional factors - e.g. Fear
-Incomplete - self-efficacy and broader social factors not considered
Outline the theory of Planned Behaviour using a diagram
*insert diagram here*
What is the limitation of the Theory of Planned Behaviour?
It is a good predictor of intentions but a poor predictor of behaviour.
The problem comes in translating intentions into actions.
What is the Stages of Change (Transtheoretical) model?
A model of 5 stages which people may pass through over time in decision making about changing their behaviour.
Why is it important to consider the transtheoretical model when looking at Health Behaviour?
Because the way people think about health behaviours and their willingness to change their behaviour are not static.
How may the different stages of the transtheoretical model affect health behaviour?
Different cognitions may be important determinants of health behaviour at different times.
Outline using a diagram the Stages of Change (transtheoretical) model.
*insert diagram from lecture*
Describe a person's attitude to changing their behaviour in the pre-contemplation stage.
They are not considering changing their behaviour.
Describe a person's attitude to changing their behaviour in the contemplation stage.
They are beginning to consider changing their behaviour. This may occur as a result of a trigger.
Describe a person's attitude to changing their behaviour in the preparation stage.
They are preparing themselves to undertake the change.
Describe a person's attitude to changing their behaviour in the action stage.
The person has made the change in their behaviour for the short term.