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Flashcards in Pain Deck (30)
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What can pain often signify?

That the body has been damaged or that something is wrong.


What are children with a congenital insensitivity of pain at risk of?

Not recognising physical damage and range of problems such as:

- Biting off parts of their own tongue.

- Prone to eye infections after damage by a foreign object.

- Suffering from broken bones/fractures.


Why is acute pain necessary?

To protect us from damage or infection


Define chronic pain

Pain persisting after an injury has healed, with pain signals remaining active for weeks, months, or even years after initial onset.


What do prolonged pains usually signify?

That the body is still damaged or healing.


What may have happened if pain persists for three months or more?

The physical damage may have been healed, however pain pathways have become over sensitised or disregulated, so that pain is felt in the absence of physical injury.


What changes have been shown to occur in neurones after three months of chronic pain?

Molecular changes in RNA in spinal cord neurones.


What implications can this have on treatment of chronic pain?

There is need to intervene early to prevent changes to the neural pathways.


What does a biological view of pain assume?

That all pain is due to physical injury.


Why is a biological explanation of pain not sufficient?

There are instances where pain occurs in the absence of physical injury


What things (besides physical injury) can cause or increase pain?

- Negative emotion

- Cognitive processes

- Behaviour such as inactivity


Studies have shown that anxiety can have what effect on pain tolerance?

Anxiety has been shown to reduce pain tolerance


What types of factors can affect pain?

- Biological

- Psychological

- Social


Define nociception

The stimulation of peripheral pain receptors, which send signals to the CNS


Define 'sensation' in terms of pain

How the messages to the CNS are interpreted. This can be affected by the range of factors in the multidimensional model of pain.


Define suffering

Suffering refers to the perceived pain, distress, and disability that can arise from pain and other related factors.


Define pain threshold

The point at which a stimulus becomes painful and is similar for most people.


Define pain tolerance

The degree to which a painful stimulus can be tolerated, this can vary between individuals.


What has been shown to increase pain tolerance?

Positive emotions such as humour.


What can the point at which a person complains of pain vary due to?

Their background and characteristics


What does the multidimensional model of pain reflect?

A biopsychosocial approach


What are the features of the multi-dimensional model of pain?

*insert model picture here*


Outline the steps of the psychophysiological concept of pain

1. Damage
2. Transduction
3. Conduction
4. Transmission
5. Modulation
6. Perception


What happens during the 'Damage' stage of pain?

Damaged cells release sensitising chemicals.


What happens during the 'Transduction' stage of pain?

Noxious stimuli are translated into electrical activity at sensory nerve endings


What happens during the 'conduction' stage of pain?

Action potentials pass along the neurones


What happens during the 'transmission' stage of pain?

Synaptic transfer and modulation of input from one neurone to the next via chemical messengers


What happens during the 'modulation' stage of pain?

Anti-nociception neurons originating in the brain stem descend to spinal chord and release chemical messengers that inhibit transmission of painful stimuli


What happens in the 'perception' stage of pain?

Recognition and reaction in the brain


What percentage of adults are affected by chronic pain?