Flashcards in Coping Deck (97)
Who theorised the transactional model of stress?
Lazarus and Folkman, 1984
What happens in the transactional model of stress?
Potential stressor Primary appraisal Secondary appraisal Stress
What factors can cause stress in chronic illness?
Diagnosis Physical impact Treatment Hospitalisation Adjustment Chronic nature of illness Socioeconomic illness
What will a person have on diagnosis of a chronic illness?
Lots of worries and questions
What is the importance of the worries and questions a person will have on diagnosis of a chronic illness?
A strong predictor of future anxiety is the number of unanswered concerns
What may the emotional responses to diagnosis be?
Shock Anxiety Depression Denial Fear
What may the physical impact of a chronic disease be?
Pain Limited mobility Other symptoms
How may the treatment for a chronic illness cause stress?
Anxiety Discomfort Impact on body image Burdensome nature of self management
Give an example of where a chronic disease may have an impact on body image
Why may self management of a chronic disease cause stress?
Life changes Having to take medication
Why may hospitalisation cause stress?
Loss of autonomy, privacy, or status Possible removal from usual support network
What adjustments may need to be made when a person has a chronic illness?
Biographical disruption Change in identity
What is meant by biographical disruption
Disruption to life trajectory
What is the result of the disruption to life trajectory in chronic illness?
Change in goals Have to rethink future
What change in identity might occur in chronic illness?
Why may the chronic nature of illness cause stress?
The change may be indefinite, and so it is hard to make plans
What is the socioeconomic impact of chronic illness?
May cause financial problems if work is affected Social problems Relationship problems
What is the result of the loss of income if a chronic illness means work is affected?
May struggle with mortgage, childcare etc
What social problems may a chronic illness cause?
Who may chronic illness cause relationship problems between?
Family Friends Colleagues
What must be considered when thinking about stress in chronically ill patients?
There is a different combination of issues for different patients, but all share the need for adjustment
What does stress depend on?
How may perception of chronic illness affect stress?
If they think the illness is very bad If they think they can't cope
What are the categories of life events causing stress?
Family Personal Workplace Financial
What family events can cause stress?
Bereavement Divorce Marriage Family health Pregnancy Family unemployment
What personal events can cause stress?
Imprisonment Personal achievement Change in school/residence Sexual difficulties Change in habits Holidays
What workplace events can cause stress?
Dismissal Retirement Job change Change in responsibilities/conditions
What financial events can cause stress?
Change in financial state Mortgage
What are the types of coping styles?
Emotional focused coping Problem focused coping