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Flashcards in Lesson 1 Deck (130):
1

hello

bonjour

hello - bonjour. Note that bonjour literally translates to "good day." You can use it to say "good morning" or "good afternoon" as well.

2

Good evening!

Bonsoir!

Good evening - Bonsoir. Note that bonsoir is a compound word formed from the words for "good" and "evening." It is used instead of bonjour to greet people in the evening.

3

My name is Marc

Je m'appelle Marc

my name is - je m'appelle. This literally translates to "I call myself..."

4

hi/bye

salut

hi/bye - salut. To informally greet or say goodbye to someone at any time of day, you can say salut.

5

Hello (on the phone)

Allo

Hello - Allo. Note that allo is only said when picking up the phone.

6

goodbye

au revoir

goodbye - au revoir

7

yes

oui

yes - oui

8

no

non

no - non

9

What is your name?

Comment vous appelez-vous?

What is your name? - Comment vous appelez-vous? Note that this literally translates to "How/What do you call yourself?"

10

please

s'il vous plaît

please - s'il vous plaît. This expression literally means, "if it pleases you." Note that with a close friend, you could say s'il te plaît.

11

Thank you

Merci

thank you - merci. Note that "no, thank you" would be non, merci.

12

You're welcome

De rien

you're welcome - de rien. Note that a formal alternative is je vous en prie.

13

Excuse me

Excusez-moi

excuse me - excusez-moi. Note that you could also say pardon, which translates more directly as "pardon me."

14

Welcome!

Bienvenue!

Welcome - Bienvenue

15

How are you?

Comment ça va?

How are you? - Comment ça va? This is sometimes shortened to Ça va?

16

(in a formal setting) How are you?

Comment allez-vous?

How are you? (formal) - Comment allez-vous?

17

I'm fine

Ça va bien

I'm fine, I'm OK - Ça va bien. This translates directly to "It goes well." Note also that bien is a common adverb -- "well."

18

I (would like to) introduce Jean to you

Je vous présente Jean

I (would like to) introduce ___ to you - Je vous présente ___

19

Can you help me?

Pouvez-vous m'aider?

Can you help me? - Pouvez-vous m'aider?

20

Of course

Bien sûr

of course - bien sûr

21

a boy

un garçon

a boy - un garçon. Note that singular masculine nouns use the indefinite article un.

22

a girl

une fille

a girl - une fille. Note that singular feminine nouns use the indefinite article une.

23

the boy

le garçon

the (masculine) - le. Note that singular masculine nouns use the definite article le.

24

the girl

la fille

the (feminine) - la. Note that singular feminine nouns use the definite article la.

25

a woman

une femme

a woman - une femme

26

a man

un homme

a man - un homme

27

a person

une personne

a person - une personne

28

the man

l'homme

For any singular (masculine or feminine) noun starting with a vowel or a mute "h," the correct definite article is l' instead of le/la. This is called a contraction, and it also happens with words like de and ne.

29

an American boy

un garçon américain

American (masculine adj.) - américain. Unless otherwise noted, adjectives are presented by default in their singular, masculine forms. Adjectives usually come after the nouns they modify. Note also that for the noun "an American," the translation would be capitalized: un Américain.

30

an American girl

une fille américaine

American (feminine adj.) - américaine. Adjectives agree in gender and number with the nouns they modify. Here, the adjective's gender is feminine to match the gender of the noun. This is normally done by adding an "e" at the end, which causes the final consonant to be pronounced audibly.

31

a happy boy

un garçon heureux

happy - heureux. Remember that most descriptive adjectives are placed after the nouns they modify. There are some exceptions, which we will learn about elsewhere.

32

the happy girl

la fille heureuse

happy (feminine) - heureuse. Note that for adjectives ending with an "x," the ending in the singular feminine form changes to -se, where the "s" is pronounced audibly.

33

the women

les femmes

the (plural) - les. Note that the definite article for plural nouns, regardless of gender, is les. Note also that the plural is formed most often by adding an "s" to the end of the word in question.

34

some boys

des garçons

some (plural) - des. The indefinite article for plural nouns, regardless of gender, is des. Also note how the plural "s" added to the noun is not pronounced audibly.

35

(some) happy women

des femmes heureuses

happy (plural feminine) - heureuses. Remember that adjectives must agree in number and gender with the nouns they modify. For adjectives ending with an "x," in the plural feminine form the ending changes to -ses.

36

the boys and the girls

les garçons et les filles

and - et. Note that for the vast majority of French words ending in "t," the "t" is not pronounced.

37

a man or a woman

un homme ou une femme

or - ou

38

a student

un élève

a student - un élève. The feminine form of this noun is the same: une élève. For a university or graduate student, use étudiant.

39

the students

les élèves

Note the pronunciation of the "s" in les here. When a word ending with a normally silent consonant is followed by a word beginning with a vowel or mute "h," the normally silent consonant is pronounced. This is called a liaison.

40

a pretty girl

une jolie fille

pretty (adj.) - joli. Note that the singular feminine form is jolie. Adjectives dealing with beauty typically precede the nouns they modify.

41

to be

être

to be - être. Note that être is an irregular verb, as are the majority of the most commonly used verbs in French.

42

The girl is pretty

La fille est jolie

(he/she/it) is - est. Est is the third-person singular in the present tense of the verb être.

43

The man is sad

L'homme est triste

sad - triste

44

He is happy

Il est heureux

he - il

45

She is pretty

Elle est jolie

she - elle

46

He is rich

Il est riche

rich - riche. Note that the feminine form is the same.

47

She is very rich

Elle est très riche

very - très

48

The boy is cute

Le garçon est mignon

cute - mignon

49

The girl is cute

La fille est mignonne

cute (feminine) - mignonne. Note the singular feminine form of mignon. For any masculine form ending in "n" or "l," the feminine form doubles that consonant before adding an "e."

50

The boy is funny

Le garçon est drôle

funny - drôle. Note that the singular feminine form would remain drôle. Marrant also works as a translation for "funny."

51

The girl is attractive

La fille est attirante

attractive - attirant. Note that attirant has a slightly stronger emphasis on physical/sexual attraction than its English equivalent "attractive."

52

The boy is strong

Le garçon est fort

strong - fort. Note that the singular feminine form is forte.

53

The woman is poor

La femme est pauvre

poor - pauvre

54

The girl is rich but the boy is poor

La fille est riche mais le garçon est pauvre

but - mais

55

The man is ugly

L'homme est laid

ugly - laid. Note that laid only applies to people, so it is common to use moche, which applies to both people and things.

56

It's cool!

C'est cool!

it is, that is - c'est. Note that cool comes from English, and that an alternative is sympa.

57

I

je

I - je

58

I am a student

Je suis un étudiant

I am - je suis. Suis is the first-person singular in the present tense of the verb être, or "to be." For professions or occupations, you can skip using the indefinite article un/une: je suis étudiant.

59

I am with Julie

Je suis avec Julie

with - avec

60

I am sorry

Je suis désolé

I'm sorry - je suis désolé. If the speaker were female, it would be je suis désolée.

61

you

tu (informal/singular), vous (formal/plural)

you - tu, vous. The personal pronoun tu is typically used to address a single friend or child. Meanwhile, vous is used either to formally address one person or to address a group of people ("you all").

62

(to a close friend) You are cute

Tu es mignon

you are - tu es. Es is the second-person singular in the present tense of the verb être, or "to be."

63

(to several people) You are funny

Vous êtes drôles

you (many of you) are - vous êtes. Êtes is the second-person plural in the present tense of the verb être. Note that in this case, the adjective takes the plural masculine form.

64

(to a group of women) You are cute

Vous êtes mignonnes

Note the use of the plural feminine form of the adjective, mignonnes. If there were at least one male member of the group being addressed, you would use mignons.

65

(to a male superior) You are rich

Vous êtes riche

you (formal) are - vous êtes. Note that, although the verb is conjugated in the second-person plural, the adjective is singular (and masculine), as in this case you are formally addressing only one (male) person.

66

The child is sad

L'enfant est triste

a child - un enfant. Note that an informal alternative is gosse, which is masculine.

67

Jean is a naughty child

Jean est un méchant enfant

bad, naughty - méchant

68

He is a good child

C'est un bon enfant

good (adj.) - bon. Adjectives dealing with goodness (right and wrong) are often placed before the nouns they modify. Also note how il est is replaced by c'est here, because the noun that follows has been modified.

69

Albert is a young man

Albert est un jeune homme

young (adj.) - jeune. Note that adjectives dealing with age are often placed before the nouns they modify.

70

I am a small boy

Je suis un petit garçon

small - petit. Un petit garçon also translates to "a short boy." Note that adjectives dealing with size are often placed before the nouns they modify.

71

(to a close friend) You are a tall man

Tu es un homme grand

tall (person) - grand. When associated with objects, grand generally means "big." Grand is an adjective whose meaning depends on its placement around the noun.

72

a tall man; a great man

un homme grand; un grand homme

The meaning of the adjective grand depends on its placement around the noun, particularly if the noun is a person. Placed after the noun, adjectives like this often have a literal meaning (size/height in this case). Placed before the noun, they take on a figurative meaning (historical greatness in this case).

73

a poor woman; an unfortunate (poor) woman

une femme pauvre; une pauvre femme

Note how the placement of pauvre can alter its meaning. Used after the noun, it literally means "poverty-stricken." Placed before the noun, it takes on a more figurative meaning.

74

The (male) student is beautiful

L'étudiant est beau

beautiful - beau. Note that the plural masculine form is beaux.

75

a beautiful (male) student

un bel étudiant

Note that beau is changed to bel before masculine nouns beginning with a vowel or a mute "h."

76

The sports-loving boy is rich

Le garçon sportif est riche

sports-loving - sportif. Note that the singular feminine form is sportive. While there is no perfect English equivalent, sportif means someone who enjoys and plays sports. It is both a noun and an adjective.

77

The boy is brave

Le garçon est courageux

brave - courageux

78

The girl is humble

La fille est humble

humble - humble

79

She is smart

Elle est intelligente

smart - intelligent

80

He is dumb

Il est bête

dumb - bête. Note that stupide or idiot could work as alternatives.

81

The woman is bright

La femme est brillante

bright - brillant. Note that brillant can mean both "smart" and "shiny." Here we are of course addressing a person's intelligence.

82

The man is muscular

L'homme est musclé

muscular - musclé. Note that the singular feminine form is musclée. This adjective comes from the noun muscle, obviously meaning "muscle."

83

(to a close female friend) You are beautiful

Tu es belle

beautiful (feminine) - belle

84

You (informal) are gorgeous

Tu es magnifique

gorgeous - magnifique. Superbe and splendide also translate to "gorgeous." All three adjectives can convey greatness as well as good looks.

85

(to a female superior) You are well-dressed

Vous êtes bien habillée

well-dressed - bien habillé. We will learn more about adverbs like bien elsewhere.

86

he, she, one

il, elle, on

Note that in French, on is a neuter impersonal pronoun meaning "one": "One should respect the king" -- On devrait respecter le roi.

87

we

on (third-person singular), nous (first-person plural)

we - on, nous. The first-person plural pronoun nous is the literal translation of "we." However, in informal speech, Francophones frequently use the third-person singular pronoun on to mean "we." Recall that on is technically an impersonal subject pronoun that translates to "one."

88

We are women

On est des femmes. / Nous sommes des femmes

we are - on est, nous sommes. Note that while nous sommes is more literal, on est is much more commonly used in conversation to mean "we are."

89

We are sociable

Nous sommes sociables

sociable - sociable. Note the plural form of this adjective, since the subject is plural.

90

they

ils (masc.), elles (fem.)

they - ils, elles

91

They (women) are beautiful

Elles sont belles

they are - ils/elles sont. Sont is the third-person plural in the present tense of the verb être, or "to be."

92

They (male) are fit

Ils sont athlétiques

fit, athletic - athlétique, en forme

93

a big house

une grande maison

a house - une maison. La maison, which translates to "the house," usually signifies one's "home."

94

the children

les enfants

children, kids - enfants. Note that saying les enfants can connote "(the) kids" in the same way that a mother would call out to her own children.

95

The children are great

Les enfants sont super

super, great - super. Note that super can be used on its own: for example, "Great!" can be translated as Super! It is used informally, and is also a rare invariable adjective, meaning it does not change in gender or number.

96

He is nice

Il est sympa

likable, nice, cool - sympa. This is a shortened, informal form of the adjective sympathique. Another way of saying "nice" is gentil.

97

I am lost

Je suis perdu

I am lost - je suis perdu. If the speaker were female, it would be je suis perdue.

98

It's a small table

C'est une petite table

a table - une table

99

Food is ready/Dinner is served!

À table!

food is ready/dinner is served - à table. This is a typical French expression, used to call children to the table for a meal. The literal translation is "at the table!"

100

Enjoy your meal

Bon appétit

Enjoy your meal - Bon appétit. This translates directly to "good appetite."

101

a friend

un ami

a friend - un ami. Note that you can also use copain, the feminine form of which is copine.

102

He is Monsieur Martin's student

C'est un élève de Monsieur Martin

of, from - de. Note that this translates directly to "He is a student of Monsieur Martin."

103

She is from Paris

Elle est de Paris

from - de. The preposition de is very common in French, and can sometimes mean "with," "about," or "for" as well.

104

to have

avoir

to have - avoir. Note that avoir is an irregular verb.

105

I have a French friend

J'ai un ami français

I have - j'ai. Ai is the first-person singular in the present tense of the verb avoir, or "to have." Note that the personal pronoun je changes to j' because the verb begins with a vowel.

106

He has a child

Il a un enfant

he/she/one has - il/elle/on a. A is the third-person singular in the present tense of the verb avoir.

107

I have a boyfriend

J'ai un petit ami

a boyfriend - un petit ami. This translates directly as "little friend." Note that in a familiar context, you can also use copain.

108

one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten

un, deux, trois, quatre, cinq, six, sept, huit, neuf, dix

109

eleven, twelve, thirteen, fourteen, fifteen, sixteen, seventeen, eighteen, nineteen, twenty

onze, douze, treize, quatorze, quinze, seize, dix-sept, dix-huit, dix-neuf, vingt

110

(to a close friend) You have three children

Tu as trois enfants

you (a close friend) have - tu as. As is the second-person singular in the present tense of the verb avoir.

111

We have a big house

Nous avons/On a une grande maison

we have - on a, nous avons. Avons is the first-person plural in the present tense of the verb avoir, while a is the third-person singular.

112

You guys/You all have two houses

Vous avez deux maisons

you (many of you) have - vous avez. Avez is the second-person plural in the present tense of the verb avoir.

113

the sugar

le sucre

sugar - le sucre

114

the money

l'argent

money - l'argent. This masculine word literally means "silver."

115

the soup

la soupe

soup - la soupe

116

We have (some) soup

Nous avons de la soupe

De la is a partitive article, formed by pairing de with the appropriate definite article. Partitive articles indicate a part of something (like soup) that can't necessarily be counted. In English, we use words like "some" or "any," but often omit them. In French, they are necessary: you cannot say avoir soupe or avoir la soupe; the de is required.

117

We have (some) sugar

On a du sucre

Du is the partitive article for masculine singular nouns. It replaces the construction de le (de + proper definite article). If you said On a le sucre, the meaning would be different: "We have the sugar."

118

I have (some) money

J'ai de l'argent

Here, de l' replaces what would have been du; you cannot say du argent because argent begins with a vowel.

119

The rich woman has (some) gold

La femme riche a de l'or

gold - l'or. Or is a masculine noun. Because or begins with a vowel, the contracted construction de l' must be used.

120

I have friends

J'ai des amis

The partitive article for plural nouns is the plural indefinite article des. This replaces de les. Here you are essentially saying, "I have some friends."

121

She is classy

Elle a de la classe

(to be) classy - avoir de la classe. This literally translates as "to have class." Note that you cannot say avoir classe or avoir la classe; the partitive de is necessary.

122

They have class

Ils ont de la classe

they have - ils/elles ont. Ont is the third-person plural in the present tense of the verb avoir.

123

I am 14 years old

J'ai 14 ans

I am X years old - j'ai X ans. Note that in French, the verb avoir, "to have," is used to give one's age instead of être, "to be." This directly translates to "I have X years."

124

I have a girlfriend

J'ai une petite amie

a girlfriend - une petite amie. In a familiar context, you can also use copine.

125

to arrive

arriver

to arrive - arriver. The first-person singular form of this verb in the present, j'arrive, is commonly used as an expression to say "I'm on my way!"

126

In French, most adjectives are placed after the noun they modify. However, which kinds of adjectives are often placed before the noun?

Adjectives that deal with:

  • Beauty
  • Rank
  • Age
  • Goodness
  • Size

You can remember these with the acronym BRAGS.

 

127

Name the personal pronouns in French:

  • I
  • you
  • he/she
  • we
  • you all
  • they

  • je
  • tu/vous
  • il/elle
  • on/nous
  • vous
  • ils/elles

128

TO BE (être):

  • I am
  • you are
  • he/she is
  • we are
  • you (all) are
  • they are

ÊTRE:

  • je suis
  • tu es
  • il/elle/on est
  • nous sommes
  • vous êtes
  • ils/elles sont

129

TO HAVE (avoir):

  • I have
  • you have
  • he/she has
  • we have
  • you (all) have
  • they have

AVOIR:

  • j'ai
  • tu as
  • il/elle/on a
  • nous avons
  • vous avez
  • ils/elles ont

130

Pronounce the letters in the French alphabet.

a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, t, u, v, w, x, y, z