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Flashcards in Lesson 4 Deck (116):

My house is near the high school

Ma maison est près du lycée

near - près. Note that when près is followed by a noun, you must add de between it and the noun. In this case, de le is of course replaced by du.


The classroom is full

La salle est pleine

full - plein. Note that if you want to say "I am full (from eating)," it is incorrect to say Je suis plein. Instead, say J'ai trop mangé.


There are many kids in the house

Il y a plein d'enfants dans la maison

many, lots of - plein de. This construction is an informal alternative to beaucoup de.


The school is empty

L'école est vide

empty - vide


Our teacher's classroom is almost full

La salle de classe de notre enseignant est presque pleine

almost, nearly - presque, quasiment. Note that an alternative is pratiquement, which means "practically" or "virtually."


My car is almost entirely empty

Ma voiture est presque entièrement vide

totally, entirely - totalement, entièrement. These adverbs are formed from the adjectives total and entier, respectively.


Marie is entirely pleased. Julie is entirely happy

Marie est toute contente. Julie est tout heureuse

entirely - tout. Tout can be used as an adverb. Adverbs are normally invariable, but tout is an exception. It agrees with feminine adjectives that begin with a consonant (as in the first sentence). The feminine adjective in the second sentence starts with a vowel sound, however, so tout is unchanged.


Marie and Claire are entirely tired. Jean and Paul are entirely tired

Marie et Claire sont toutes fatiguées. Jean et Paul sont tout fatigués

entirely - tout. Tout is irregular as an adverb in that it agrees with feminine adjectives (unless they begin with a vowel sound). With masculine adjectives, however, it is invariable (as in the second sentence).


My middle school is very near/close to Sophia's house

Mon collège est tout près de chez Sophia

very - tout (adv.). Tout takes on this added meaning when it's used to modify other adverbs (in this case, près).


I leave tomorrow for Paris

Je pars demain pour Paris

to leave - partir. This is an irregular -IR verb that conveys leaving for or from somewhere. You can use the verb quitter to say that you are leaving someone or someplace, but it must take a direct object.


Are we going out tonight?

Sortons-nous ce soir?

to go out - sortir. Note that this is an irregular -IR verb.


They leave the house

Ils quittent la maison

to leave - quitter. Note that quitter is used specifically to signify leaving someone or something. If you want to say that you are leaving in general, use partir.


I have to leave

Je dois partir

to have to - devoir. This irregular verb is often followed by an infinitive. It can also mean "to owe." Its present-tense conjugations are je dois, tu dois, il/elle/on doit, nous devons, vous devez, ils/elles doivent.


What is a present participle, and how is it formed in French?

A present participle is the equivalent of the "-ing" verb form in English, when referring to a verb in progress. To form it, drop the conjugation ending from the nous form of the present tense and add -ant. For example, for the verb chanter, the present participle is chantant.


Do you see the woman writing the book?

Est-ce que tu vois la femme écrivant le livre?

Note how the present participle is used here to modify a noun (la femme).


The boys who come from Paris are smart

Les garçons qui viennent de Paris sont intelligents. Les garçons venant de Paris sont intelligents

Note the two French translations of this sentence. The first is the more literal translation. The second employs the present participle venant to replace the clause qui viennent.


I think while walking

Je pense en marchant

When the present participle describes an action related to the main verb, it is called a gerund. It almost always follows the preposition en, in which case it means "while/upon ___-ing." Here, the action en marchant is related to the central action, pense.


By walking, you lose weight

En marchant, vous maigrissez

Note that the gerund can be used to explain the cause or effect of something. When it serves this purpose, it is translated as "by ___-ing."


I love dancing

J'adore danser

English verb + English present participle = French verb + French infinitive. When a second verb directly follows a first, conjugated verb, the second verb's infinitive is used. J'adore dansant would be incorrect. In general, when you want to express a verb in its noun form ("I love dancing"), you use its infinitive (J'adore danser).


Seeing is believing

Voir, c'est croire

In English, the present participle ("seeing") is used as a noun. In French, however, the infinitive (voir) is used. Using the French present participle -- Voyant, c'est croire -- would be wrong.


She's leaving the room

Elle quitte la pièce

a room - une pièce. Pièce is used to refer to a room in general. You can also use salle, often to refer to a room with a specific purpose.


You clean everything

Tu nettoies tout

to clean - nettoyer. In the present, the stem of this verb changes from nettoi- to nettoy- in the nous and vous forms: nous nettoyons.


I am cleaning the house

Je suis en train de nettoyer la maison

to be ___-ing - être en train de + infinitive. The present progressive, or present continuous, denotes that you are in the process of doing something. The present tense could also work here: Je nettoie la maison. The construction Je suis nettoyant is NOT an acceptable translation of "I am cleaning."


The child cleans his bedroom too often

L'enfant nettoie sa chambre trop souvent

a bedroom - une chambre


I'm in the process of making my bed

Je suis en train de faire mon lit

a bed - un lit


My chest of drawers is full

Ma commode est pleine

a chest of drawers - une commode


We are cleaning the kitchen today

Aujourd'hui nous nettoyons la cuisine

a kitchen - une cuisine


I'm always cold!

J'ai toujours froid!

cold - froid. Note the use of the verb avoir to say "I am cold." This translates directly to "I have cold."


It's hot (outside)

Il fait chaud

hot - chaud. In order to indicate that it is hot, you must use the third-person singular form of the verb faire. This is true for the cold as well: "It's cold" would be Il fait froid.


The water is too hot

L'eau est trop chaude

water - l'eau. Note that this is a feminine noun.


This neighborhood is small

Ce quartier est petit

a neighborhood - un quartier


The refrigerator is in the kitchen

Le frigidaire est dans la cuisine

a refrigerator - un frigidaire


There is too much water in the sink

Il y a trop d'eau dans l'évier

a sink - un évier. Note that the word for "a bathroom sink" is un lavabo.


I'm emptying the bathroom sink

Je suis en train de vider le lavabo

to empty - vider


The kitchen is clean

La cuisine est propre

clean - propre. For this adjective to mean "clean," you should use it after the noun: une cuisine propre is "a clean kitchen." Propre takes on a different, possessive meaning when used before the noun.


The bathroom is large

La salle de bain est grande

a bathroom - une salle de bain


She's taking a shower

Elle prend une douche

a shower - une douche. Note that the verb doucher can mean "to shower" or "to wash" something.


Do you take a shower every day?

Prends-tu une douche tous les jours?

every day - tous les jours


I'm going to the bathroom

Je vais aux toilettes

the toilet, the bathroom - les toilettes. Note that in French the word for "toilet" is always plural. Also note that à le becomes au and à les becomes aux.


He washes his car

Il lave sa voiture

to wash - laver


The car is dirty

La voiture est sale

dirty - sale


My brother speaks French all the time

Mon frère parle français tout le temps

all the time - tout le temps. Note that temps means both "time" and "weather."


You guys sully the kitchen all the time

Vous salissez la cuisine tout le temps

to soil, to sully - salir


We're eating in the dining room

Nous mangeons dans la salle à manger

a dining room - une salle à manger. Note that for the first-person plural of manger, the "e" is kept in the stem.


Are you doing the dishes?

Est-ce que tu fais la vaisselle?

to do the dishes - faire la vaisselle. There are several household-related faire expressions. Others include faire les courses ("to run errands" or "to go shopping"), faire le ménage ("to do housework"), and faire la lessive/le linge ("to do the laundry").


It's a great chair

C'est une chaise magnifique

a chair - une chaise. Note that "a seat" would be un siège.


I'm sitting in the dining room

Je m'assieds dans la salle à manger

to sit - s'asseoir. Note that this is a reflexive verb, which we will talk more about elsewhere.


We are deciding to leave tonight

Nous décidons de partir ce soir

to decide - décider. This verb should be followed by the preposition de.


This chair is too hard

Cette chaise est trop dure

hard - dur. Note that dur can also be used to mean "difficult," just like the word "hard" in English.


He pulls the door

Il tire la porte

to pull (out) - tirer. Note the feminine noun for "door," porte.


We're in the living room

Nous sommes dans le salon

a living room - un salon


The baby can walk

Le bébé peut marcher

a baby - un bébé


I sleep on the couch

Je dors sur le canapé

a couch, a sofa - un canapé. The masculine nouns sofa and divan would also work here.


The baby is sleeping in his crib

Le bébé dort dans son berceau

a crib - un berceau


How much does the sofa cost? It's free

Combien coûte le canapé? Il est gratuit

free (of cost) - gratuit. The feminine form is gratuite. The invariable adjective gratis is an alternative. Note that C'est gratuit would also work here.


I like to watch television

J'aime regarder la télévision

to watch - regarder. Note that télévision is a feminine noun.


They have a new couch

Ils ont un nouveau divan

new - nouveau. The plural masculine form is nouveaux, while the feminine form is nouvelle(s). Depending on context, nouveau can sometimes mean "another."


The living room floor is clean

Le sol du salon est propre

the floor - le sol


I have a new rug for the bathroom

J'ai un nouveau tapis pour la salle de bain

a rug, a carpet - un tapis


I'm taking the stairs

Je prends les escaliers

stairs, staircase - escalier(s). The plural escaliers refers to "stairs" or "steps." The singular escalier would translate more accurately to "staircase."


I like colors

J'aime les couleurs

a color - une couleur


The color of this light is interesting

La couleur de cette lumière est intéressante

light - la lumière. Note that lumière applies to both "a light" (in a room or on a ceiling) and all "light" in general.


The lamp is small

La lampe est petite

a lamp - une lampe


There's a light on the ceiling

Il y a une lumière sur le plafond

a ceiling - un plafond


The furniture in this house is very old

Les meubles dans cette maison sont très vieux

furniture - des meubles. This word is typically plural when referring to "furniture" collectively. A single piece of furniture would be un meuble.


The book is on the bookshelf

Le livre est sur l'étagère

a bookshelf - une étagère


We are going down the stairs

Nous descendons les escaliers

to go down, to descend - descendre. This is a regular -RE verb.


Are they going up the stairs?

Montent-ils les escaliers?

to go up, to climb, to ascend - monter. This is a regular -ER verb.


The elevator is going down

L'ascenseur descend

an elevator - un ascenseur


This elevator is slow

Cet ascenseur est lent

slow - lent


My neighbor is named Béatrice. She is very pretty

Ma voisine s'appelle Béatrice. Elle est très jolie

a neighbor - un voisin


The living room chairs are red

Les chaises du salon sont rouges

red - rouge


The ceiling is blue

Le plafond est bleu

blue - bleu


She has a yellow couch

Elle a un canapé jaune

yellow - jaune


They have a grey house

Ils ont une maison grise

grey - gris


Is your neighbor's house green?

La maison de ton voisin est-elle verte?

green - vert


My mother has a pink car

Ma mère a une voiture rose

pink - rose


The book is brown

Le livre est marron

brown - marron. Note that marron is invariable. It is used to describe objects, while brun is used to describe the color of hair and eyes.


The walls are green

Les murs sont verts

a wall - un mur. To refer to a wall around a city or property, you would use une muraille.


I have a purple bed

J'ai un lit violet

purple - violet


He is leaving the white house near our school

Il quitte la maison blanche près de notre école

white - blanc. Note the feminine form of the adjective in the example.


The television is not black anymore

La télévision n'est plus noire

black - noir


Do you want an orange pen?

Veux-tu un stylo orange?

orange - orange


My parents have a big red door

Mes parents ont une grande porte rouge

a door - une porte


I never open the door for my friends

Je n'ouvre jamais la porte pour mes amis

to open - ouvrir. As with many verbs, the past participle of this verb, ouvert, is commonly used as an adjective -- "open."


The door is closed

La porte est fermée

to close - fermer. Note the use of this verb's past participle as an adjective here, similar to what happens in English.


She closes the window

Elle ferme la fenêtre

a window - une fenêtre


My friend Marc is always depressed

Mon ami Marc est toujours déprimé

depressed - déprimé. Note that "depressing" would be déprimant.


She is the shyest person that I know

C'est la personne la plus timide que je connais

shy - timide


Paul has many friends because he is very outgoing

Paul a beaucoup d'amis parce qu'il est très extraverti

outgoing - extraverti. You could also call an outgoing person ouvert.


I'm still bored

Je suis toujours ennuyé

bored - ennuyé. Note that the adverb toujours can be used to mean "still" as well as "always." Note the adverb's placement right after the conjugated verb but before the adjective. Also recall that ennuyeux means "boring."


I do not want to go out because I am exhausted

Je ne veux pas sortir parce que je suis épuisé

exhausted - épuisé


She is finally motivated

Elle est enfin motivée

motivated - motivé. Note that the opposite of motivé is démotivé.


Claire is always in good spirits

Claire est toujours de bonne humeur

mood, spirits - humeur. Note that the preposition de must precede the adjective when describing the type of mood someone is in. For example, "Jean is in a bad mood" would be Jean est de mauvaise humeur.


He is in great shape

Il est en grande forme

shape, form - forme. Note that en must precede any adjective modifying forme. Forme can refer to both one's physical and mental states.


I cannot finish this horrible snack

Je ne peux pas finir cet encas horrible

horrible - horrible


This book is truly terrible

Ce livre est vraiment terrible

terrible - terrible. Note that the French expression pas terrible is actually used somewhat positively to express that something is "OK" or "nothing special."


She closes the door slowly

Elle ferme la porte lentement

slowly - lentement. Here, the suffix -ment is paired with the (feminine form of the) adjective lent to create the adverb. The feminine form is used simply to make the resulting adverb sound better when spoken.


My dad walks too quickly

Mon père marche trop rapidement

rapidly, quickly - rapidement. This adverb is formed by pairing the adjective rapide with the suffix -ment. Recall that vite could also work here.


He reacts strangely

Il réagit bizarrement

strangely - bizarrement. Note that you could also use étrangement.


Her cat is really fat

Son chat est très gros

fat - gros. Note that the feminine form is grosse. The word for "cat," chat, is masculine.


I have three dogs

J'ai trois chiens

a dog - un chien


He's mad when he goes to school

Il est en colère quand il va à l'école

mad - en colère. Furieux, enragé, and fâché are common alternatives.


She is sleeping all day!

Elle dort toute la journée!

all day - toute la journée. This is an example of the present progressive in English because the subject is in the process of sleeping, but in French the basic present tense can be used: elle dort.


I feel sad

Je me sens triste

I feel - je me sens. This is an example of a reflexive verb, which we will cover in-depth elsewhere. Reflexive verbs are used in fixed expressions, like je m'appelle, so for now just commit these few to memory.


This story is becoming more and more interesting

Cette histoire devient de plus en plus intéressante

more and more - de plus en plus. Note that the opposite construction, "less and less," is de moins en moins.


We are more or less in agreement

Nous sommes plus ou moins d'accord

more or less - plus ou moins


Marie believes that she is invincible

Marie croit qu'elle est invincible

invincible - invincible


We become weaker while growing older

On devient plus faible en vieillissant

weak - faible. Note that faible also means "quiet" when referring to the volume of something.


When I feel weak, I take these pills

Quand je me sens faible, je prends ces pilules

a pill - une pilule


That movie seems/looks really funny!

Ce film a l'air très drôle!

to seem/look - avoir l'air. Note that when this construction is paired with an adjective, the adjective does not need to agree in gender and number with the subject.


Jean looks like a king

Jean a l'air d'un roi

to look like - avoir l'air de. Note that when paired with a noun, the expression avoir l'air takes on the preposition de. The same is true when it's paired with the infinitive of a verb: "You look like you are angry" translates as Tu as l'air d'être fâché.


I think while eating

Je pense en mangeant


Jean is in the process of cooking himself a meal

Jean est en train de se faire à manger


A student succeeds by studying

Un étudiant réussit en étudiant


Upon opening the door, Marie sees her uncle

En ouvrant la porte, Marie voit son oncle