SM_221a: Functional Anatomy of the Back Flashcards Preview

MSK/Derm > SM_221a: Functional Anatomy of the Back > Flashcards

Flashcards in SM_221a: Functional Anatomy of the Back Deck (47)
Loading flashcards...
1

Components of the vertebral column are _____, _____, and _____

Components of the vertebral column are vertebrae, intervertebral discs, and ligaments/muscles

 

 

(having vertebrae and intervertebral discs separate allows for flexibility/mobility/shock absorption)

2

There are ____ cervical vertebrae

There are 7 cervical vertebrae

3

There are ____ thoracic vertebrae

There are 12 thoracic vertebrae

4

There are ____ lumbar vertebrae

There are 5 lumbar vertebrae

5

There are ____ sacral vertebrae

There are 5 sacral vertebrae

 

(fused together)

6

Cervical and lumbar spine exhibit ______

Cervical and lumbar spine exhibit lordosis

 

(convex - i.e. facing anterior)

7

Thoracic and sacral spine exhibit ______

Thoracic and sacral spine exhibit kyphosis

 

(concave - i.e. facing posterior)

8

The spine of a newborn exhibits ______

The spine of a newborn exhibits kyphosis

 

(concave - i.e. facing posterior)

9

Scoliosis is abnormal _____ curvature of the spine

Scoliosis is abnormal lateral curvature of the spine

10

The body of a vertebrae faces ______, while the arch faces ______

The body of a vertebrae faces anteriorly, while the arch faces posteriorly

11

Describe the parts of the vertebral arch

Parts of the vertebral arch

  • Pedicles connect arch to body
  • Lamina extend the pedicles
  • Vertebral foramen is where spinal cord is
  • Spinous process attaches to muscle
  • Articular processes are where two vertebrae on top of each other articulate

12

Cervical vertebrae are distinguished by the presence of a _____

Cervical vertebrae are distinguished by the presence of a transverse foramen

 

(also vertebral foramen is large b/c spinal cord is larger)

13

Thoracic vertebrae are distinguished by the presence of _____

 

 

(vertebral foramen smaller than cervical, spinous processes are larger b/c of attachment to muscles)

Thoracic vertebrae are distinguished by the presence of rib articular facets

 

(articulate with ribs)

14

Lumbar vertebrae are distinguished by their _____

Lumbar vertebrae are distinguished by their large bodies

15

_____ emerging at the facet joint are implicated in neck and back pain

Osteophytes emerging at the facet joint are implicated in neck and back pain

 

 

(also movements at loose articulations can impinge on spinal cord or nerves)

16

Intervertebral foramina are where ______ emerge from

Intervertebral foramina are where spinal nerves emerge from

17

Describe ligaments of the vertebral column

Ligaments of the vertebral column

  • Anterior longitudinal ligament: links all vertebrae anteriorly
  • Posterior longitudinal ligament: links all vertebrae posteriorly
  • Ligamentum flava: links arches of vertebrae together
  • Supraspinous ligament: links spines of vertebrae together

(whiplash disrupts these ligaments)

18

Functions of the intervertebral disc are to _____ and _____

Functions of the intervertebral disc are to act as a shock absorber and mediate movement between vertebral bodies

19

Intervertebral discs are composed of an outer _____ and inner _____

Intervertebral discs are composed of an outer annulus fibrosis and inner nucleus pulposus 

20

Herniated discs lead to functional deficit or pain because _____

Herniated discs lead to functional deficit or pain because the nucleus pulposus cannot be contained by the damaged annulus fibrosis, compressing the spinal nerve located in the intervertebral foramen

21

Extrinsic muscles of the back come from the ______

Extrinsic muscles of the back come from the hypomere

22

Extrinsic muscles of the back are innervated by ______

Extrinsic muscles of the back are innervated by anterior (ventral) rami

23

Extrinsic muscles of the back attach to ______

Extrinsic muscles of the back attach to limbs

 

(except serratus posterior)

24

Extrinsic muscles of the back move _____

Extrinsic muscles of the back move limbs

25

Intrinsic muscles of the back come from the ______

Intrinsic muscles of the back come from the epimere

26

Intrinsic muscles of the back are innervated by _____

Intrinsic muscles of the back are innervated by posterior (dorsal) rami

27

Intrinsic muscles of the back attach to the ______

Intrinsic muscles of the back attach to the vertebral column

28

Intrinsic muscles of the back move the _____

Intrinsic muscles of the back move the vertebral column

29

Myotome of the somite divides into the _____ and _____

Myotome of the somite divides into the hypomere and epimere

30

Describe characteristics of the extrinsic muscles of the back

Extrinsic muscles of the bacl

  • Come from hypomere
  • Innervated by the anterior (ventral) rami
  • Attach to limbs except serratus posterior
  • Move limbs

Decks in MSK/Derm Class (49):