SM_238a: Functional Anatomy of the Lower Limb / Gait Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in SM_238a: Functional Anatomy of the Lower Limb / Gait Deck (39)
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1

Describe the 7 periods of the gait cycle

7 periods of the gait cycle

  • Loading response: 0-10%
  • Mid stance: 10-30%
  • Terminal stance: 30-50%
  • Pre-swing: 50-60%
  • Initial swing: 60-73%
  • Mid swing: 73-87%
  • Terminal swing: 87-100%

2

List the 7 periods of gait cycle in order

7 periods of gait cycle

  1. Loading response: 0-10%
  2. Mid stance: 10-30%
  3. Terminal stance: 30-50%
  4. Pre-swing: 50-60%
  5. Initial swing: 60-73%
  6. Mid swing: 73-87%
  7. Terminal swing: 87-100%

3

Stride length is ____

Stride length is distance between two successive heel contacts of the same foot

 

(1 stride length = 1 gait cycle)

4

Step length is ____

Step length is distance between heel contacts of each foot

5

Step width is ____

Step width is distance between heel centers of two consecutive heel contacts

6

Toe out angle is ____

Toe out angle is angle between line of progression of the body and long axis of the foot

7

Strategies to increase walking speed are _____ and _____

Strategies to increase walking speed are increasing stride length and increasing cadence

8

In elderly, gait speed is ____, step length is ____, and cadence is ____

In elderly, gait speed is reduced, step length is shorter, and cadence is slower

 

(more stability, less likely to fall)

9

Periods of double limb support _____ during running and both feet are _____

Periods of double limb support disappear during running and both feet are off the ground simultaneously

10

Anterior compartment of the thigh contains the _____, _____, and _____ muscles

Anterior compartment of the thigh contains the iliopsoas (iliacus, psoas major), sartorius, and quadriceps (rectus femorus, vastus lateralis / medialis / intermedius) muscles

11

Anterior compartment of the thigh functions to ____ and ____ and is innervated by the ____

Anterior compartment of the thigh functions to flex hip and extend knee and is innvervated by the femoral nerve

12

Medial/adductor compartment of the thigh contains the ____, ____, ____, ____, and ____ muscles

Medial/adductor compartment of the thigh contains the gracilis, pectineus, adductor longus, adductor brevis, and adductor magnus muscles

13

Medial/adductor compartment of the thigh functions to ____, ____, and ____ and is innervated by the ____

Medial/adductor compartment of the thigh functions to adduct hip, flex hip, and medially rotate hip and is innervated by the obturator nerve

14

Posterior/hamstring compartment of the thigh contains the ____, ____, and ____ muscles

Posterior/hamstring compartment of the thigh contains the semitendinosus, semimembranosus, and biceps femoris (long head, short head) muscles

15

Posterior/hamstring compartment of the thigh functions to ____ and ____ and is innervated by the ____

Posterior/hamstring compartment of the thigh functions to extend hip and flex knee and is innervated by the sciatic nerve

16

Gluteal region contains the ____, ____, ____, ____, and ____ muscles

Gluteal region contains the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, tensor fasciae latae, and 6 lateral rotator muscles

17

Gluteus maximus and tensor fasciae latae insert into the ____

Gluteus maximus and tensor fasciae latae insert into the iliotibial band

18

Gluteal region functions to ____, ____, and ____ and is innervated by the ____

Gluteal region functions to extend hip, abduct hip, and laterally rotate hip and is innervated by the superior and inferior gluteal nerves

19

Anterior crural muscles include ____, ____, ____, and ____

Anterior crural muscles include tibialis anterior, extensor hallucis longus, extensor digitorum longus, and fibularis (peroneus) tertius

20

Anterior crural muscles function to ____, ____, and ____ and are innervated by the ____

Anterior crural muscles function to dorsiflex ankle, invert/evert ankle, and extend toes and are innervated by the deep fibular nerve

21

Lateral crural muscles include ____ and ____

Lateral crural muscles include fibularis (peroneus) longus and fibularis (peroneus) brevis

22

Lateral crural muscles function to ____ and ____ and are innervated by the ____

Lateral crural muscles function to plantarflex ankle and evert ankle and are innervated by the superficial fibular nerve

23

Superficial group of posterior crural muscles includes ____, ____, and ____

Superficial group of posterior crural muscles includes gastrocnemius (medial head, lateral head), soleus, and plantaris

24

Deep group of posterior crural muscles includes ____, ____, ____, and ____

Deep group of posterior crural muscles includes popliteus, flexor hallucis longus, flexor digitorum longus, and tibialis posterior

25

Posterior crural muscles function to ____, ____, and ____ and are innervated by the ____

Posterior crural muscles function to plantarflex ankle, invert ankle, and flex toes and are innervated by the tibial nerve

26

Initial contact (0% - heel strike) involves ____, ____, and ____

Initial contact (0% - heel strike) involves quadriceps, hamstrings, and dorsiflexors

 

 

(hamstrings slow movement down, most muscle activity in gait is eccentric)

27

Loading response (0-10%) involves ____ and ____

Loading response (0-10%) involves quadriceps and gluteals

28

Mid stance (0-30%) involves ____, ____, and ____

Mid stance (0-30%) involves gluteus medius, gastrocnemius, and soleus

29

Terminal stance (30-50%) involves ____ and ____

Terminal stance (30-50%) involves gastrocnemius and soleus

30

Pre-swing (50-60%) involves ____ and ____

Pre-swing (50-60%) involves adductor longus and rectus femoris

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