SM_222a: Organization of the Upper Limb Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in SM_222a: Organization of the Upper Limb Deck (64)
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1

Joint complex consists of _____, _____, _____, _____, and _____

Joint complex consists of bones, joints, ligaments, muscles, and nerves

2

Limbs are outgrowths of the body well, innervated by ______ of spinal nerves through ______

Limbs are outgrowths of the body well, innervated by ventral rami of spinal nerves through nerve plexi

3

Muscles within compartments share ______, ______, ______, and ______

Muscles within compartments share embryological origins, nerve and blood supply, attachment points, and function

 

(compartments separated by deep fascia)

4

Muscles of the upper limb are innervated by branches of the _____, a network of anterior (ventral) rami of spinal nerves _____

Muscles of the upper limb are innervated by branches of the brachial plexus, a network of anterior (ventral) rami of spinal nerves C5-T1

5

Type and range of motion at any synovial joint is mainly determined by the shape of the _____

Type and range of motion at any synovial joint is mainly determined by the shape of the articulation

6

Describe the different types of joints

Types of joints

  • Ball and socket joints (shoulder, hip): permit movement on several axes (most mobile)
  • Condylar joints (knee): permit motion in one major and one minor direction
  • Hinge joints (elbow, upper ankle): permit motion in one direction

7

Ball and socket joints permit motion _____ and include _____ and _____

Ball and socket joints permit motion on several axes and include shoulder and hip


(most mobile)

8

Condylar joints permit motion _____ and include the _____

Condylar joints permit motion in one major and one minor direction and include the knee

9

Hinge joints permit motion _____ and include the _____ and _____

Hinge joints permit motion in one direction and include the elbow and upper ankle

10

Ligaments are _____ that connect _____ to _____

Ligaments are tough bands of fibrous connective tissue that connect bones to other bones

11

Ligaments prevent damage to joints by _____ and _____

Ligaments prevent damage to joints by limiting the range of movement in the normal direction of motion and preventing movements in unwanted directions

12

Damage to a ligament is called a _____, which is graded based on _____ and _____

Damage to a ligament is called a sprain, which is graded based on the degree of tear and resulting joint instability

13

Role of muscles is _____

Role of muscles is to generate the forces necessary to move the body or to stabilize the body against forces

 

(prevent or limit joint damage)

(muscle facts include name, attachment, action, and nerve supply)

(usually origin is proximal and fixed, while insertion is distal and moves)

14

With regards to muscles, the muscles the _____ performs the action, while the _____ performs the movement opposite

With regards to muscles, the protagonist performs the action, while the antagonist performs the movement opposite

 

(flexion of the elbow joint: biceps brahcii is protagonist, triceps brachii is the antagonist)

15

Joints in the shoulder are _____, _____, _____, _____, and _____

Joints in the shoulder are sternoclavicular, coracoclavicular, acromioclavicular, glenohumoral, and scapulothoracic (not true joint)

16

Glenohumoral joint is a _____ joint capable of _____, _____, _____, and _____

Glenohumoral joint is a ball and socket joint capable of flexion-extension, abduction-adduction, internal (medial) and external (lateral) rotation, and circumduction

 

(greatest ROM of any joint, least stable joint, most commonly dislocated)

17

Glenohumoral joint has the greatest _____ of any joint but is the _____ stable and most commonly _____

Glenohumoral joint has the greatest ROM of any joint but is the least stable and most commonly dislocated

18

Acromioclavicular joint is a _____ joint which allows _____ sliding movements between the acromion of the scapula and distal end of the clavicle

Acromioclavicular joint is a synovial joint which allows small sliding movements between the acromion of the scapula and distal end of the clavicle

19

Coracoclavicular joint is a _____ joint, not a _____ joint

Coracoclavicular joint is a fibrous joint, not a synovial joint

20

_____ and _____ joints anchor the scapula to the clavicle and can be disrupted in a separated shoulder 

Acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular joints anchor the scapula to the clavicle and can be disrupted in a separated shoulder

21

_____ joint is the joint between the sternum and clavicle

Sternoclavicular joint is the joint between the sternum and clavicle

22

Scapulothoracic joint refers to _____, but is not a true joint

Scapulothoracic joint refers to the fact that the scapula, which is embedded in muscle, must be able to move freely over the posterior thoracic wall in order to facilitate movement of the upper arm, but is not a true joint

23

Scapulothoracic rhythm refers to the fact that _____

Scapulothoracic rhythm refers to the fact that the scapula and humerus move in a 1:2 ratio

 

(when arm abducted 180 degrees, 60 degrees occurs by rotation of the scapula and 120 degrees by rotation of the humerus at the shoulder joint)

24

In the glenohumoral joint, the _____ ligament is strong and prevents upward dislocation of the humerus

In the glenohumoral joint, the coracoacromial ligament is strong and prevents upward dislocation of the humerus

25

Stability of the glenohumoral joint is primarily provided by the _____

Stability of the glenohumoral joint is primarily provided by the tendons of the rotator cuff muscles

26

Describes muscles of the shoulder joint by their action

27

Shoulder extensors include _____, _____, and _____

Shoulder extensors include deltoid, latissimus dorsi, and triceps brachii

28

Shoulder flexors include _____, _____, and _____

Shoulder flexors include deltoid, pectoralis major, and biceps brachii

29

Shoulder abductors include the _____ and _____

Shoulder abductors include the deltoid and supraspinatus

30

Shoulder medial/internal rotators include _____ and _____

Shoulder medial/internal rotators include teres major and subscapularis

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