Flashcards in 1) Biopsychosocial Model + Stress Deck (20):
What is health psychology?
Is the contribution of psychology to preventing illness, promoting good health and treatment and understanding psychological concepts of illness.
What is the biomedical model?
Medicine not interested in psychological or social factors. Illness understood biologically and physiologically with treatment involving physical intervention (drugs, surgery)
Why has death rate decreased and life expectancy increased?
Medical advances (drugs, vaccines) and social improvement (housing, diet)
What are now the most common cause of death?
What is the biopsychosocial model?
Model linking those 3 aspects to health
Why is the biopsychosocial model important?
Patients seen as real people, doctors see mental health and understanding feelings/emotions
What is the physiological response to stress?
Short term changes to mobilise for activity, triggered by catecholamines (adrenaline)
Examples of physiological response to stress:
Increased O2 availability
Conservation of energy resources
Increase in cardiac output
Increase in blood pressure
What is eustress?
Positive stress giving optimal performance
What is the transactional model of stress?
The balance of demands (stressors) and resources to appraise a situation. If demands are greater than resources = stress response
What is the primary appraisal?
Is the event a threat?
What is the secondary appraisal?
Do I have the resources or skills to cope?
What is the reappraisal?
Reconsider the situation once have tried to cope with it
How does control affect stress?
Higher control = less stress
How does social support affects stress?
Buffer against stress and helps cope when there is stress
How can stress cause physical damage?
Physiological responses can cause damage in long term. Often on CVS and vulnerable to infection due to long term effects of cortisol on immune system
Why can stress cause unhealthy behaviours?
Coping may involve unhealthy behaviours which help short term but damaging over long term e.g. smoking and drinking
What impact can stress have on mental health?
Thinking more rigid and extreme leading to overgeneralisation and rumination (dwelling on neg. thoughts). Anxiety and depression causing low motivation / downward spiral of illness
Examples of stress management:
Cognitive strategies (thinking differently)
Behavioural strategies –skills training
Emotional strategies –counselling, social support
Physical strategies –relaxation, exercise
Non-cognitive strategies –drugs