Flashcards in 11) Child Development and Communication Deck (20):
Why is attachment needed?
Safety and security
How do infants keep mother close?
Proximity seeking and contact maintaining behaviours e.g. crying
When can an infant distinguish strangers from non-strangers?
When do specific attachments develop?
What is attachment dependent on?
Quality of care
Carer's acceptance of role
What does secure attachment lead to later in life?
Better social competence
What can disruption to attachment lead to?
Personality and mental disorders
What three things does separation result in?
Protest, despair and detachment
What physical and emotional factors does separation cause?
Affects sleep and heart rate
What improvements have been made to hospitals to stop the negatives of separation?
Reassure child that they aren't being punished
Environment made to be like home
Continuity of staff - allows relationships to form
What are the criticisms of attachment theory?
Focussed on mothers
Often multiple attachment figures
Quality of substitute care not considered
What are Piaget's four stage of childhood cognitive development?
Describe the sensori-motor stage and what years this occurs between:
Between 0-2 years, think by doing:
Experience world through senses
Develop motor co-ordination
Body schema - where they end
Describe the pre-operational stage and what years this occurs between:
Classification by single feature
Only see their point of view
Describe the concrete operational stage and what years this occurs between:
Think logically but not abstract
Classification by multiple features
Able to see things from others' perspective
Describe the formal operational stage and what years this occurs between:
What are the criticisms of Piaget's theory?
Focus on what child can't do
May give partial info as child deemed too young to understand -> damaging
What is Vygotsky's theory of social development?
Cognitive development requires social interaction
Child learns through shared problem solving, with instruction
What are the implications of childhood development theories for communication in practice?
Don't assume average ability, assess and tailor
Difficult to articulate feelings or think about the future
Danger of using metaphors