12) Motivational Interviewing and Pain Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 12) Motivational Interviewing and Pain Deck (22):
1

What are strategies for changing health behaviour?

Education
Incentives to change e.g. financial
Behavioural skills and resources e.g. smoking cessation

2

What is motivational interviewing?

Patient-centred method for enhancing intrinsic motivation to change by exploring and resolving mixed feelings

3

What are the techniques used in motivational interviewing?

Focus on patient's arguments for change
Listen and empathise
Avoid argumentation
Increase internal motivation

4

When is motivational interviewing helpful in the stages for change model?

Pre-contemplative/contemplative

5

What is pain?

Signals that body has been damaged or something is wrong

6

Describe acute pain:

Short lasting, protects us from damage and infection

7

Describe chronic pain:

Greater than 3 months
Original damage likely to have healed but pain pathways oversensitised
Sometimes no cure
Cause sometimes not known

8

What happens after 3 months of stimulation to a pain pathway?

Pain neurones adapt and get changes to neural pathways

9

What are the limitations of the bio-medical model of pain?

Pain can be increased by negative emotion, cognitive processes and behaviour

10

What is the bio-medical explanation of pain?

Results from physical damage
Treatment is analgesia and surgery

11

How can psychological factors affect pain?

Anxiety can lead to reduced pain tolerance
Fear can lead to increased pain tolerance

12

What is nociception?

Stimulation of peripheral pain receptors which send pain messages to CNS

13

What is the pain threshold?

Point at which a stimulus becomes painful
Similar for most people

14

What is pain tolerance?

Degree to which pain can be tolerated
Wide variation

15

What is the gate theory of pain?

Pain signals compete with other neural signals to get through synaptic gate at neurones in spinal cord
Physiological and psychological factors can open or close this gate

16

What theory does the gate theory of pain explain?

Rubbing it better

17

How can the gate theory of pain be used as part of pain management?

Helps those with chronic pain understand that their attitudes and behaviour can influence pain

18

What factors open the gate?

Injury
Alcohol and drug use
Depression and anxiety
Stress
Focussing on pain

19

What factors close the gate?

Medication
Exercise
Distraction
Positivity - laughter

20

What is the aim of pain management programmes?

Assist people in effectively managing their pain so they can lead a functional and positive life

21

What negative cycle can occur in chronic pain?

Pain -> behavioural changes -> negative emotion -> social withdrawal -> more pain

22

What are the outcomes of good pain management programmes?

Less pain
No depression
Successful coping
Increased activity
Improved social functioning