1 - Head & Neck - General Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1 - Head & Neck - General Deck (30):
1

Name the 3 layers of deep cervical fascia, from superficial to deep:

1 - Investing layer
2 - Pretracheal layer
3 - Prevertebral layer

2

In which cervical fascial layer is the Platysma and the external jugular vein found?

Superficial cervical fascia

3

Which cervical fascial layers form the carotid sheath?

Deep cervical fascial layers:
- Investing layer
- Pretracheal layer
- Prevertebral layer

4

What are the attachments of the investing layer of deep cervical fascia?

Superiorly:
- Inferior mandible
- Mastoid process
- Superior nuchal line
- External occipital protuberance

Inferiorly:
- Superior border of manubrium
- Superior border of clavicles
- Acromion
- Spine of scapula

5

What are the attachments of the pretracheal layer of deep cervical fascia?

Superiorly = Hyoid bone
Inferiorly = Blends with fibrous pericardium

6

What are the 2 layers of the pretracheal layer, and what do they enclose?

1 - Muscular layer = Enclose infrahyoid muscles
2 - Visceral layer = Enclose Thyroid gland, Trachea and Oesophagus

7

The investing layer splits to invest which key muscles and glands?

- Trapezius
- Sternocleidomastoid
- Submandibular salivary glands
- Parotid salivary glands

8

How can a thyroid goitre cause facial oedema and breathlessness?

Goitre can extend retrosternally as the pretracheal layer extends into thorax.
Therefore goitre can put pressure on trachea = breathlessness.
Goitre can compression the venous drainage from the head and neck = facial oedema.

9

Name the important contents of the carotid sheath:

- Common carotid artery
- Internal jugular vein
- Vagus nerve
- Cervical lymph nodes

10

The prevertebral layer of deep cervical fascia extends between which structures?

- Base of cranium
- 3rd thoracic vertebrae (T3)

11

Which layer of deep cervical fascia forms the axillary sheath (surrounding the axillary vessels and brachial plexus)?

Prevertebral layer

12

Where is the retropharyngeal space?

Space between the prevertebral and buccopharyngeal (fascia surrounding pharynx) fascial layers

13

What is found in the retropharyngeal space?

Nothing (lymph nodes up to age 4)

14

What is the main function of the retropharyngeal space?

Allows pharynx to move freely, and to expand when swallowing

15

If an infection develops in the retropharyngeal space, how far down in the body can it spread?

To the posterior mediastinum

16

What age group most commonly develops infections in the retropharyngeal space?

Under 5 yrs

17

How can a retropharyngeal abscess present?

- Visible bulge on oropharynx
- Sore throat
- Dysphagia
- Stridor
- Neck stiffness
- High temperature

18

What is the function of the buccinators?

- Keep cheeks taut
- Aid chewing

19

What nerve innervates the muscles of mastication?

Trigeminal nerve - Mandibular division
CN V

20

What nerve innervates the muscles of facial expression?

Facial nerve
CN VII

21

What is Bell's palsy?

Facial paralysis due to inflammation of facial nerve. Often due to viral infection.

22

Through which gland does the fascial nerve pass?

Parotid gland

23

What are the main muscles of mastication?

- Temporalis
- Masseter
- Medial and lateral Pterygoids

24

Name the 5 branches of the facial nerve:

1 - Temporal
2 - Zygomatic
3 - Buccal
4 - Marginal mandibular
5 - Cervical

25

Name the 3 branches of the trigeminal nerve:

1 - Opthalmic
2 - Maxillary
3 - Mandibular

26

How can you test the facial nerve?

Motor:
- Raise both eyebrows
- Frown
- Close both eyes tightly
- Try to open eyes against resistance
- Show both upper and lower teeth
- Smile
- Puff out both cheeks
Sensory:
- Test for taste

27

How can you test the trigeminal nerve?

Motor:
- Palpate temporalis and masseter as patient clenches jaw
- Ask to keep mouth open and side-to-side against resistance
- Jaw jerk
Sensory = Light touch in 3 divisions:
1) Opthalmic = forehead
2) Maxillary = cheeks
3) Mandibular = chin

28

Name the boundaries of the anterior triangle of the neck:

Superior = inferior margin of mandible
Laterally = medial border of sternocleidomastoid
Middle - Imaginary sagittal line down midline

29

Name the boundaries of the posterior triangle of the neck:

Anterior = Posterior border of sternocleidomastoid
Posterior = Anterior border of trapezius
Inferior = Superior border of medial 1/3rd clavicle

30

Which nerve innervates the sternocleidomastoid muscle?

Accessory nerve
CN XI