13 - Head + Neck - Nose + Paranasal sinuses Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 13 - Head + Neck - Nose + Paranasal sinuses Deck (23)
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What is the function of the nose and nasal cavity?

- Smell
- Filter + humidify air
- Resonating chamber for speech
- Drainage of paranasal sinuses + nasolacrimal ducts


Which bones form the root of the external nose?

- 2 x Nasal bones
- Maxilla


Name the boundaries of the nasal cavity and the associated bones:

Roof: Cribriform plate - nasal + frontal + ethmoid + sphenoid
Floor: Hard + soft palates - maxilla + palatine
Lateral: Conchae
Medial: Nasal septum - ethmoid + vomer + septal cartilage


What nerve gives general sensation to the nasal cavity?

Anterior-Superior = CN V1
Posterior-Inferior = CN V2


What is a septal haematoma? What is the complication of this if it isn't treated promptly?

Blood between the perichondrium + septal cartilage

Saddle deformity of the nose due to necrosis of cartilage


What are the symptoms associated with nasal polyps?

- Blocked nose
- Watery rhinorrhoea
- Post-nasal drip = cough
- Decreased sense of smell
- Decreased sense of taste


What is a nasal polyp?

Fleshy benign swelling of mucosa
Mobile + painless
Usually bilateral
Usually 40+ yrs


What is rhinitis?

Inflammation of nasal mucosal lining, usually caused by viral infection or allergen


What are the symptoms of rhinitis?

- Nasal congestion
- Rhinorrhoea
- Sneezing
- Nasal irritation
- Post nasal drip = cough


Name the 4 paired paranasal sinuses:

1) Frontal
2) Sphenoidal
3) Ethmoidal
4) Maxillary


Most paranasal sinuses drain into which meatus?

Middle meatus


What is the epithelium lining the paranasal sinuses?

Ciliated pseudostratified columnar + goblet cells


What are the symptoms associated with acute sinusitis?

- Pain + tenderness over affected sinuses
- Rhinorrhoea
- Fever
- Malaise
- Non-resolving cold/flu


Which bacteria most commonly infect the paranasal sinuses?

- Haemophilus influenzae
- Streptococcus pneumoniae


How can sinusitis cause orbital cellulitis?

Infections of the ethmoidal air cells can infiltrate into the medial wall of the orbit


Name the area of the nose from which 90% nosebleeds occur:

Keisselbach's plexus


Which arteries supplying the nasal mucosa arise from the roof of the cavity?

- Anterior Ethmoid artery
- Posterior Ethmoid artery


Which artery supplying the nasal mucosa arises from the posterior wall, and accounts for 5% nosebleeds?

Sphenopalatine artery


Which arteries supplying the nasal mucosa arise from the floor of the cavity?

- Greater palatine artery
- Superior labial artery


What is epistaxis?

Nose bleeds


What is the management of epistaxis?

- Pinch in front of bridge of nose + lean forward
- Cauterise visible bleeding point
- Anterior packing
- Posterior packing
- Surgical ligation


How can CSF reach the nasal cavity following trauma?

- Cribriform plate of ethmoid bone fractures
- Dura mater around christa galli ruptures
- CSF leaks into nasal cavity


Why might a patient with sinusitis complain of toothache?

- Underlying cause of sinusitis may be tooth abscess, as some teeth roots are very close to maxillary sinus and can erode into the sinus
- Referred pain due to shared sensory innervation to the maxillary sinus and teeth, upper jaw + cheek (CN V2)