17 - Head + Neck - Larynx Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 17 - Head + Neck - Larynx Deck (20):
1

What are the superior and inferior boundaries of the larynx?

Sup: Hyoid bone (C4)
Inf: Trachea (C6)

2

What are the functions of the larynx?

- Phonation
- Respiration
- Protection of airways
- Cough reflex

3

What are the zones of the larynx, and their corresponding sensory innervation:

Supraglottis = Internal laryngeal nerve
Glottis
Subglottis = Recurrent laryngeal nerve

4

What are the cartilages of the larynx?

- Epiglottis
- Thyroid
- Cricoid
- Arytenoids

5

Which membrane of the larynx is can be punctured to establish an emergency airway?

Cricothyroid membrane

6

What is the name of the point where the 2 lateral plates of the thyroid cartilage meet?

Laryngeal prominence 'adam's apple'

7

Name the only complete ring of cartilage in the respiratory tract:

Cricoid cartilage

8

Broadly, how do the intrinsic laryngeal muscles affect the arytenoids?

The muscles cause the arytenoids to pivot on the cricoid cartilage, causing the vocal cords to abduct/adduct/tense

9

Name the 2 mucosal folds lining the interior of the larynx:

Most superior = vestibular fold (false vocal cord)

Inferior = true vocal cord (contains vocal ligament)

10

Name the 5 intrinsic muscles of the larynx:

1) Cricothyroid
2) Post. cricoarytenoid
3) Lat. cricoarytenoid
4) Thyroarytenoid
5) Transverse + Oblique arytenoids

11

Which muscle is responsible for changing pitch during phonation (particularly high pitch sounds)? What is its nerve supply?

Cricothyroid

Ext. superior laryngeal (CN X)

12

Which muscle can abduct the vocal cords, therefore required for respiration? What is its nerve supply?

Post. cricoarytenoid

Recurrent laryngeal (CN X)

13

Which nerve innervates all (except one) of the intrinsic muscles of the larynx? What is the exception?

Recurrent laryngeal nerve

Exception = Cricothyroid = Ext. superior laryngeal

14

Describe the position of the vocal cords during:
- Phonation
- Respiration
- Coughing
- Swallowing

ADDUCTED = phonation, coughing, swallowing

ABDUCTED = respiration

15

What happens to the corresponding vocal cord if the left recurrent laryngeal nerve is cut? How will this present?

- Immobilise in neutral position between abduction and adduction

- Hoarse voice, weaker cough

16

What happens to the vocal cords if both the recurrent laryngeal nerves are cut? How will this present?

- Both vocal cords immobilise in neutral position
= Rima glottis becomes extremely narrow

- Aphonia, obstructed breathing, unable to protect airway during swallowing

17

Name some concerning causes of a hoarse voice:

- Left apical lung tumour (pancoast)
- Aortic aneurysm
- Enlarged lymph nodes in trachea-oesophageal groove
- Carcinoma of larynx
- Stroke
- MS

18

Which nerves make up the cervical plexus, and in which triangle of the neck is it located?

C1-4
Posterior

19

Name the main 2 motor branches of the cervical plexus, their roots and target:

Phrenic = C3, 4, 5 --> Diaphragm
Ansa cervicalis = C1, 2, 3 --> Infrahyoids

20

Name the main 4 sensory branches of the cervical plexus, and their targets:

- Greater auricular --> Ear
- Transverse cervical --> Anterior neck
- Lesser occipital --> Post-Sup scalp
- Supraclavicular --> Upper thoracic region