8 - Repro - Male repro system 2 Flashcards Preview

ESA4 > 8 - Repro - Male repro system 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in 8 - Repro - Male repro system 2 Deck (27):
1

Which part of the prostate is affected by BPH? What are the implications of this?

Middle lobule of Prostate
Compresses urethra = dysuria, nocturia, urgency

2

Describe the difference in PSA levels between BPH and prostatic malignancies:

BPH = normal or slightly raised PSA
Prostatic malignancies = markedly raised PSA

3

In which 2 ways does prostatic cancer commonly metastasise?

1) via lymph - to internal iliac and sacral nodes
2) via venous blood - to internal vertebral plexus - to brain and vertebrae

4

Which lobe of the prostate is palpated during a DRE?

Posterior lobe of prostate

5

To which lymph nodes does prostatic cancer metastasise to first?

- Internal iliac nodes
- Sacral nodes

6

Name the 3 erectile tissues present in the root of the penis:

2 x crura (of corpora cavernosum)
1 x bulb (of corpus spongiosum)

7

Name the 2 muscles in the root of the penis:

1) Bulbospongiosum
2) Ischiocavernosus

8

What is the function of the bulbospongiosum muscle, and in what part of the penis is it found?

- Expels last drops of urine from penis
- Maintains erection
- Root of penis

9

What is the function of the ischiocavernosum muscle, and in what part of the penis is it found?

- Compresses veins, maintaining an erection
- Root of penis

10

Name the 3 erectile tissues present in the body of the penis:

2 x corpora cavernosum
1 x corpus spongiosum

11

Which erectile tissue of the penis surrounds the urethra?

Corpus spongiosum

12

Th expansion of which erectile tissue forms the glans of the penis?

Corpus spongiosum

13

Name the arteries which lie either side of the corpus spongiosum:

Bulbourethral arteries

14

Name the arteries which run through the middle of each corpora cavernosum muscle:

Deep arteries of the penis

15

Which part of the urethra is the least distensible, and why?

Membranous part
- Due to surrounding sphincter urethrae muscle, and perineal membrane

16

What is the arterial supply to the penis?

Internal pudendal artery (from int. iliac) forms:
- Dorsal arteries of penis
- Deep arteries of penis
- Bulbourethral arteries

17

What is the venous drainage of the penis?

- The cavernous spaces drain into venous plexuses, into the deep dorsal veins of the penis
- Skin and cutaneous tissue drains into superficial dorsal veins

18

Name the fibrous tissue which envelopes the corpora cavernosum:

Tunica albuginea

19

How does an erection occur?

- Vasodilation of coiled arteries of the corpora cavernosum increases blood flow
- Tunica albuginea resists expansion, occluding the venous plexuses in the penis
- Contraction of bulbospongiosus and ischiocavernosus also occludes venous plexuses
= Penis becomes ingorged with blood = increased pressure

20

Where do the lymphatics of the penis drain to?

- Into deep inguinal nodes (femoral triangle)

21

Which nerves innervate the penis?

Sensory + Sympathetic = Dorsal nerve of the penis (Pudendal nerve) S2-4
Parasympathetic = Pelvic nerve S2-4

22

Which nerve causes ejaculation?

Dorsal nerve of the penis (Pudendal nerve) L1/2

23

Which nerve causes erection?

Pelvic nerve S2-4

24

List some physical causes of erectile dysfunction:

- Vasculogenic: CVD/hypertension/diabetes
- Neurogenic: MS/Parkingsons/Stroke
- Hormonal: Hypogonadism/Thyroid disease
- Anatomical: Peyronie's disease

25

List some pharmacological causes of erectile dysfunction:

- Diuretics
- Antihypertensives
- Antipsychotics
- Antidepressants

26

List some psychological causes of erectile dysfunction:

- Depression
- Anxiety
- Abuse-related conditions

27

How does viagra result in erection?

- Inhibits cGMP breakdown in corpora cavernosum
= NO stimulated vasodilation
= Erection