8 - Repro - Male repro system 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 8 - Repro - Male repro system 2 Deck (27)
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Which part of the prostate is affected by BPH? What are the implications of this?

Middle lobule of Prostate
Compresses urethra = dysuria, nocturia, urgency


Describe the difference in PSA levels between BPH and prostatic malignancies:

BPH = normal or slightly raised PSA
Prostatic malignancies = markedly raised PSA


In which 2 ways does prostatic cancer commonly metastasise?

1) via lymph - to internal iliac and sacral nodes
2) via venous blood - to internal vertebral plexus - to brain and vertebrae


Which lobe of the prostate is palpated during a DRE?

Posterior lobe of prostate


To which lymph nodes does prostatic cancer metastasise to first?

- Internal iliac nodes
- Sacral nodes


Name the 3 erectile tissues present in the root of the penis:

2 x crura (of corpora cavernosum)
1 x bulb (of corpus spongiosum)


Name the 2 muscles in the root of the penis:

1) Bulbospongiosum
2) Ischiocavernosus


What is the function of the bulbospongiosum muscle, and in what part of the penis is it found?

- Expels last drops of urine from penis
- Maintains erection
- Root of penis


What is the function of the ischiocavernosum muscle, and in what part of the penis is it found?

- Compresses veins, maintaining an erection
- Root of penis


Name the 3 erectile tissues present in the body of the penis:

2 x corpora cavernosum
1 x corpus spongiosum


Which erectile tissue of the penis surrounds the urethra?

Corpus spongiosum


Th expansion of which erectile tissue forms the glans of the penis?

Corpus spongiosum


Name the arteries which lie either side of the corpus spongiosum:

Bulbourethral arteries


Name the arteries which run through the middle of each corpora cavernosum muscle:

Deep arteries of the penis


Which part of the urethra is the least distensible, and why?

Membranous part
- Due to surrounding sphincter urethrae muscle, and perineal membrane


What is the arterial supply to the penis?

Internal pudendal artery (from int. iliac) forms:
- Dorsal arteries of penis
- Deep arteries of penis
- Bulbourethral arteries


What is the venous drainage of the penis?

- The cavernous spaces drain into venous plexuses, into the deep dorsal veins of the penis
- Skin and cutaneous tissue drains into superficial dorsal veins


Name the fibrous tissue which envelopes the corpora cavernosum:

Tunica albuginea


How does an erection occur?

- Vasodilation of coiled arteries of the corpora cavernosum increases blood flow
- Tunica albuginea resists expansion, occluding the venous plexuses in the penis
- Contraction of bulbospongiosus and ischiocavernosus also occludes venous plexuses
= Penis becomes ingorged with blood = increased pressure


Where do the lymphatics of the penis drain to?

- Into deep inguinal nodes (femoral triangle)


Which nerves innervate the penis?

Sensory + Sympathetic = Dorsal nerve of the penis (Pudendal nerve) S2-4
Parasympathetic = Pelvic nerve S2-4


Which nerve causes ejaculation?

Dorsal nerve of the penis (Pudendal nerve) L1/2


Which nerve causes erection?

Pelvic nerve S2-4


List some physical causes of erectile dysfunction:

- Vasculogenic: CVD/hypertension/diabetes
- Neurogenic: MS/Parkingsons/Stroke
- Hormonal: Hypogonadism/Thyroid disease
- Anatomical: Peyronie's disease


List some pharmacological causes of erectile dysfunction:

- Diuretics
- Antihypertensives
- Antipsychotics
- Antidepressants


List some psychological causes of erectile dysfunction:

- Depression
- Anxiety
- Abuse-related conditions


How does viagra result in erection?

- Inhibits cGMP breakdown in corpora cavernosum
= NO stimulated vasodilation
= Erection