3 - Repro - Gamete development Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 3 - Repro - Gamete development Deck (34):
1

How do spermatogonia develop into sperm?

- Divide by mitosis into Type A light spermatogonium
- Mature into Type B cells
- Undergo 64 mitotic divisions to produce primary spermatocytes
- Divide via mitosis into secondary spermatocytes
- Divide via mitosis into spermatids
- Mature into sperm

2

Why are primary spermatocytes joined via cytoplasm bridges?

To allow simultaneous maturation

3

At what point do sperm become motile?

When reach epididymis

4

Approx how many sperm are released per ejaculation?

~ 350 million per ejaculation

5

What is the volume of a typical ejaculate?

~ 3-5ml

6

How many days does spermatogenesis take?

~ 70 days

7

How many spermatids can be yielded from one Type A ?

up to 256

8

Define spermatogenic cycle:

Time taken for the reappearance of the same stage of spermatogenesis within a given segment of seminiferous tubule ~ 16 days

9

Define spermatogenic wave:

The distance between the same stage in a seminiferous tubule. Waves move in corkscrew-like spirals towards the inner part of the lumen.

10

What is the role of the rete testis?

- Concentrates sperm
- Moves sperm towards the epididymis

11

What is the role of the epididymis?

- Stores sperm ~ 6-12 days
- Can phagocytose sperm

12

Approx how long is the epididymis (if stretched out)?

~ 4-6 m

13

Describe the epithelium of the epididymis:

Pseudostratified columnar epithelia with stereocilia

14

What is the function of the vas deferens?

- Propels sperm into the urethra for ejaculation
- Can store sperm for ~ weeks
- Can phagocytose sperm

15

What percentage of the ejaculate is secreted by the seminal vesicles?

~ 70%

16

Which nerve causes the peristaltic contraction of the smooth muscle of the prostate, vas deferens and seminal vesicles in ejaculation?

Sympathetic Hypogastric nerve (L1/2)

17

What are the contents of the secretion from the seminal vesicles?

- Amino acids
- Clotting factors
- Citrate
- Fructose
- Prostaglandins

18

Why do sperm use fructose rather than glucose?

So they do not have to compete with bacteria for glucose

19

Is the secretion from seminal vesicles acidic or alkaline?

Alkaline

20

Which male reproductive glands secrete alkaline fluid contributing to the ejaculate?

- Seminal vesicles
- Bulbourethral glands

21

Which male reproductive glands secrete acidic fluid contributing to the ejaculate?

Prostate

22

What percentage of the ejaculate is secreted by the prostate?

~ 25%

23

What percentage of the ejaculate is secreted by the bulbourethral glands?

~ 5%

24

What is the arterial supply to the prostate?

Inferior vesical artery (from internal iliac artery)

25

What are the contents of the secretion from the prostate?

- Proteolytic enzymes
- Zinc
- Acid phosphatase
- PSA
- Citric acid

26

Which 3 glands make up the prostate?

- Main gland
- Submucosal gland
- Mucosal gland

27

Which gland secretes alkaline mucoproteins to lubricate and neutralise acidic urine in the urethra?

Bulbourethral (Cowper) glands

28

Which male sex glands are located within the urogenital diaphragm?

Bulbourethral (Cowper) glands

29

What is the final maturation step for sperm to become fertile? Where does it occur?

Sperm capacitation
In the female genital tract

30

What is sperm capacitation?

Final stage to make sperm fertile, occurs in female genital tract:
- Remove glycoproteins and cholesterol from head
- Activate signalling pathways
- Allow sperm to bind to the zona pellucida, and initiate acrosome reaction

31

What is the epithelium of the ovaries?

Squamous epithelium (peritoneum)

32

What area of the ovary contains nerves, blood vessels and stromal cells?

Medulla

33

What area of the ovary contains developing germ cells?

Cortex

34

Follicular cells (which surround the oocytes in the ovary) are derived from which cells?

Mesonephric cells