16 - Head + Neck - Pharynx Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 16 - Head + Neck - Pharynx Deck (34):
1

The pharynx extends from the base of the skull to which vertebral level?

C6

2

What are the 3 parts of the pharynx, and their associated vertebral levels?

C1 = Nasopharynx
C2-3 = Oropharynx
C3-6 = Laryngopharynx

3

What is the inferior border of the nasopharynx?

Soft palate

4

What are the superior and inferior borders of the oropharynx?

Sup: Soft palate
Inf: Sup. border of the epiglottis

5

What are the superior and inferior borders of the laryngopharynx?

Sup: Sup. border of the epiglottis
Inf: Inf. border of cricoid cartilage

6

What type of epithelium lines the naso-, oro- and laryngo-pharynx?

Naso- Ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium + goblet cells
Oro- Stratified squamous epithelium
Laryngo- Stratified squamous epithelium

7

What are the piriform fossae?

Small depressions either side of the laryngeal inlet
- Common site of trapped food and cancers

8

Which muscles elevate the larynx during swallowing?

- Suprahyoids
- Longitudinal pharyngeals

9

What are the main functions of the internal longitudinal muscles of the pharynx?

- Shorten and widen pharynx
- Elevate larynx during phonation + swallowing

10

Name the internal longitudinal muscles of the pharynx:

- Stylopharyngeus
- Palatopharyngeus
- Salpingopharyngeus

11

What is the main function of the outer circular muscles of the pharynx?

Contract sequentially to propel food into oesophagus

12

Name the outer circular muscles of the pharynx:

Superior, Middle and Inferior pharyngeal constrictors

13

Killian's dehiscence is an area of weakness between which pharyngeal muscles?
What is the clinical relevance of this?

- Between the 2 muscle belly's of the inferior pharyngeal constrictor

- Pharyngeal mucosa can herniate through weakness to form a pharyngeal pouch, resulting in dysphagia, regurgitation and halitosis

14

Why is a pharyngeal pouch a 'false' diverticulum?

It does not contain all layers of the pharynx (mucosa only)

15

Which nerve innervates all the pharyngeal muscles except one? What is the exception?

CN X

Exception = Stylopharyngeus = CN IX

16

Which nerves give sensory fibres to the pharynx?

Naso- = CN V2
Oro- = CN IX
Laryngo- = CN X

17

What implications can the adenoids cause if they become chronically inflamed?

- Mouth breathing
- Snoring
- Nasal tone to speech
- Otitis media (block ET)

18

What is the arterial supply to the palatine tonsils?

Facial artery (tonsillar branch)

19

What structures are vulnerable during a tonsillectomy?

- Facial artery (tonsillar branch)
- Internal Carotid artery
- CN IX

20

What are the 3 phases of swallowing?

1) Oral
2) Pharyngeal
3) Oesophageal

21

What is the function of the supra- and infrahyoid muscles during swallowing?

Suprahyoids contract:
- Elevate larynx
- Close epiglottis
- Protect airways

Infrahyoids partially contract to stabilise actions of suprahyoids.

22

Which lymph nodes would you expect to be swollen if a patient had tonsillitis? Describe their location:

Jugulo-digastric
- Posterior and inferior to the angle of the mandible

23

What causes 'glue ear' and why does this predispose to ear infections?

- Eustachian tube dysfunction (^adenoids, tumour, allergens)

- Middle ear cannot equalise with atmospheric P
- Middle ear cells absorb N2 + O2 = negative P
- Causes accumulation of transudate
- Favourable environment for bacteria

24

Which layer of cervical fascia envelops the thyroid gland?

Pre-tracheal fascia

25

The thyroid gland sits at which vertebral levels?

C5 - T1

26

Why does the thyroid gland move during swallowing?

It is connected to the Cricoid cartilage via dense connective tissue

27

The thyroid gland lies deep to which infra-hyoid muscles?

- Sternohyoid
- Sternothyroid

28

Describe the arterial supply of the thyroid:

- Sup. poles = Sup. Thyroid arteries
- Inf. poles = Inf. Thyroid arteries

29

What are the main complications of a Thyroidectomy?

- Bleeding
- Injured recurrent laryngeal nerve
- Injured superior laryngeal nerve
- Hypoparathyroidism
- Hypothyroidism
- Infection

30

What is the function of the suprahyoid muscles?

Elevate hyoid bone = elevates larynx to allow swallowing

31

Is digastric a supra- or infrahyoid muscle? Name the nerve which innervates it:

Suprahyoid muscle

CN V3

32

What are the origins and insertion of the digastric muscle?

Origins:
- Ant. belly = Digastric fossa of mandible
- Post. belly = Mastoid process

Insertion: Hyoid bone

33

What is the origin and insertion of omohyoid?

Origin: Scapula
Insertion: Hyoid

34

Is omohyoid a supra- or infrahyoid muscle? Name the nerve that innervates it:

Infrahyoid

Ansa cervicalis C1-C3