2 - HaDSoc - Lay beliefs + Health promotion + PROMs Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2 - HaDSoc - Lay beliefs + Health promotion + PROMs Deck (25):
1

What is a lay belief?

The understanding someone with no specialised knowledge has of health and illness

2

What is the negative definition of health, and which group of people commonly hold this belief?

- Health is simply the absence of illness

- Lower socio-economic class

3

What is the functional definition of health, and which group of people commonly hold this belief?

- Health means you can function normally

- Elderly

4

What is the positive definition of health, and which group of people commonly hold this belief?

- Health is a state of wellbeing and fitness to work towards

- Higher socio-economic class

5

If someone has a negative perception of health, how will this impact on their health-related behaviours?

- Will not reduce risky health behaviours as they are not currently causing illness
- May not think to change current behaviours to more positive health behaviours, as do not view health as a state to work towards

6

What are the main factors determining whether someone goes to see a healthcare professional or not?

- Culture
- Visibility of symptoms
- How much the symptoms disrupt life
- Frequency and persistency of symptoms
- Tolerance threshold
- Own understanding of symptoms
- Advice of friends/family

7

What is meant by 'lay referral'?

When an ill person seeks the advice of a lay person before/instead of seeing a healthcare professional

8

What are the 3 main ways people respond to a diagnosis and susequent treatment?

1) Denial - refuse diagnosis and treatment
2) Accepting - fully adhere to treatment
3) Pragmatic - only comply when illness is bad (will not take preventative treatment)

9

What is the ultimate goal of health promotion?

Enable people to increase control over and improve their overall health, via social and environment interventions

10

What are the 7 principles of health promotion?

1) Empowering
2) Holistic (includes physical/social/mental/spiritual health)
3) Participatory
4) Intersectoral (not just health)
5) Equitable
6) Sustainable
7) Multi-strategy

11

What are the 5 main approaches of health promotion?

1) Medical/preventative ie immunisation/screening/rehab
2) Behaviour change ie persuasive campaign
3) Educational
4) Empowerment - provide people with the tools to implement change
5) Social change ie public smoking ban

12

What are the sociological criticisms of health promotion?

- Too much surveillance, not enough self-empowerment
- 'Victim blaming' - responsibility of illness is due to individual rather than environment
- Privileges certain lifestyles

13

What dilemmas can result due to health promotion?

- Interfering = 'nanny state' - removes personal choice
- Victim-blaming
- Dis-empowering - behaviour may not be due to ignorance but other social/environmental factor that they cannot change
- Reinforce negative stereotypes
- Unequal distribution of responsibility ie healthy-eating campaign targeted at women

14

What are the 3 types of health promotion evaluation?

1) Process - assess how it is being implemented
2) Impact - assess immediate impact
3) Outcome - assess long-term impact

15

What factors make it difficult to define whether a campaign resulted in an effect?

- Lag time from intervention to effect
- Many other factors could have contributed to effect
- Evaluation is expensive

16

What type of health promotion is the 'Dry January' campaign?

- Preventative
- Educational
- Empowering
- Behaviour change

17

What type of health promotion is the planned sugar tax?

- Preventative
- Behaviour change
- Educational
- Social change

18

What are the possible dilemmas which will result due to the sugar tax?

- Interfering 'nanny state'
- Disempowering

19

What are 'PROMs' and how do we use them?

Patient Reported Outcome Measures

Assess well-being from patients point of view to:
- Improve clinical management of patients
- Compare providers of services = improves quality of services

20

Why use Patient Reported Outcomes?

- Good measure of care management (important as chronic illness is increasing)
- Allow patient-centred care - can address concerns
- Alerts to iatrogenic effects of care

21

What are the challenges of using PROMs?

- Not always cost-effective
- Lack of patient participation
- Misuse

22

What is 'Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL)'?

The impact of health on someones life, taking into account:
- Physical function
- Symptoms
- Psychological well-being
- Social well-being
- Cognitive functioning
- Personal view (stigma/self-satisfaction)
- Satisfaction with care

23

What are the advantages and disadvantages of using qualitative methods to assess HRQoL?

Ad: Good at accessing wide range of information
Useful to inform further quantitative research

Disad: Expensive/resource hungry
Not easy to evaluate

24

What are the advantages and disadvantages of using generic quantitative methods to assess HRQoL?

Ad:
- Good for broad range of problems
- Enable comparisons
- Good at detecting unexpected effects of interventions

Dis:
- Less detailed, results may be too generic (compared to qualitative)
- Less sensitive

25

What are the advantages and disadvantages of using specific quantitative methods to assess HRQoL?

Ad: Relevant information - specific
Sensitive

Disad: No good for people without the disease
Allows limited comparison