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Flashcards in 2 - Head & Neck - General Deck (35):
1

How would you test for cranial nerve XI during an examination?

Innervates Sternocleidomastoid and Trapezius:
- Lateral rotation of head against resistance
- Shrug shoulders against resistance

2

Which number cranial nerve is the facial nerve?

CN VII

3

Name the muscle which surrounds the eye socket, and the nerve which innervates it:

Orbicularis oculi
Facial nerve (CN VII)

4

What is the function of Orbicularis oculi?

Inner palpebral part = gently closes eyelid
Outer orbital part = closes eyelid more forcefully

5

Name the muscle which opens the eyelid, and the nerve which innervates it:

Levator palpebrae superioris
Oculomotor nerve (CN III)

6

Name the muscle which raises the eyebrows, and the nerve which innervates it:

Occipitofrontalis
Facial nerve (CN VII)

7

What is the function of Occipitofrontalis?

Raises eyebrows

8

Name the muscle which surrounds the mouth, and the nerve which innervates it:

Orbicularis Oris
Facial nerve (CN VII)

9

What is the function of Orbicularis Oris?

Purses lips

10

Name the muscle which sucks in your cheeks, and the nerve which innervates it:

Buccinator
Facial nerve (CN VII)

11

What is the function of the buccinator muscle?

Sucks in cheeks

12

Is the buccinator a muscle of facial expression, or of mastication? Therefore which nerve innervates it?

Facial expression
Facial nerve (CN VII)

13

Name the muscle which depresses the mandible, and the nerve which innervates it:

Platysma
Facial nerve (CN VII)

14

What is the function of Platysma?

- Depresses mandible
- Depresses angle of mouth

15

Which nerve innervates the dilator muscles of the lips?

Facial nerve (CN VII)

16

Name the main muscles of mastication, and the nerve which innervates them:

1) Masseter
2) Temporalis
3) Medial Pterygoids
4) Lateral Pterygoids

Mandibular branch of Trigeminal nerve (CN V)

17

Name the main muscle which opens the mouth, and the nerve which innervates it:

Lateral Pterygoids
Mandibular branch of Trigeminal nerve (CN V)

18

Name the most powerful muscle of mastication, and its main function:

Masseter
Elevates mandible

19

Name the 2 muscles which can elevate the mandible, and the nerve which innervates them:

1) Masseter
2) Temporalis
3) Medial Pteygoids

Mandibular branch of Trigeminal nerve (CN V)

20

Which muscles are innervated by the Accessory nerve? What number cranial nerve is it?

1) Sternocleidomastoid
2) Trapezius

CN XI

21

What is the function of Sternocleidomastoid, and what nerve is it innervated by?

- Lateral flexion of head
- Flexion of neck
- Extension of neck

Accessory nerve (CN XI)

22

What is the function of Trapezius, and what nerve is it innervated by?

- Upper = elevates scapula (shrugs shoulders)
- Middle = retracts scapula
- Lower = depresses scapula

Accessory nerve (CN XI)

23

Name the 5 layers of the scalp:

1) Skin
2) Dense Connective tissue
3) Epicranial Aponeurosis
4) Loose areolar connective tissue
5) Periosteum

Use SCALP to remember

24

Which layer of the scalp connects the Occipitalis to the Frontalis?

Epicranial Aponeurosis

25

Which layer of the scalp is the 'danger area', and why?

Loose areolar connective tissue

- Pus and blood spread easily within it, and can pass into the cranial cavity via the Emissary veins, leading to Meningitis

26

Give 3 factors which increase bleeding from scalp lacerations:

1) Pull of Occipitofrontalis muscle prevents closure of wound
2) Blood vessels are adhered to dense connective tissue, preventing vasoconstriction
3) Many anastomoses between blood vessels

27

Which artery can be palpated at the inferior margin of the mandible?

Facial artery (branch of external carotid artery)

28

Name the 3 main branches of the External Carotid Artery which supply the scalp:

1) Superficial Temporal artery
2) Occipital artery
3) Posterior Auricular artery

29

The arteries supplying the scalp are branches of which main artery?

External Carotid artery

30

Name the vessels which connect the loose areolar connective tissue of the scalp to the intracranial venous sinuses:

Emissary veins

31

Which artery supplies most of the skull?

Middle meningeal artery

32

Injury to the scalp can cause heavy bleeding. Why can this blood surround the orbit (presenting as periorbital eccymosis) but not enter the neck?

The frontalis muscle inserts into skin and subcutaneous tissue, so blood can move below this from the scalp to the orbit.
The occipitalis muscle inserts to the zygomatic and occipital bones, preventing blood passing into the neck.

33

Name the 2 main dural venous sinuses:

1) Superior sagittal sinus
2) Inferior sagittal sinus

34

Most of the dural venous sinues drain into which vein?

Internal jugular vein

35

via which hole does the internal jugular vein leave the skull?

Jugular foramina