4 - Head & Neck - Development (Pharyngeal arches) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 4 - Head & Neck - Development (Pharyngeal arches) Deck (33):
1

After how many weeks after fertilisation do the pharyngeal arches appear?

~ 4 weeks

2

What type of tissue covers the external surface of the pharyngeal arches?

Ectoderm

3

What type of tissue covers the internal surface of the pharygeal arches?

Endoderm

4

What type of tissue/cells form the 'filling' of the pharyngeal arches? (between the ectoderm and endoderm)

- Mesenchyme tissue (mesoderm)
- Neural crest cells (originate from neuroectoderm)

5

What happens to the pharygeal clefts between the arches (outer surface)?

The 2nd arch grows down and obliterates the other clefts, such that only the 1st cleft (between arches 1+2) remains

6

What is the name given to the grooves between the pharyngeal arches on the outer surface (ectoderm)?

Pharyngeal clefts

7

What is the name given to the grooves between the pharyngeal arches on the inner surface (endoderm)?

Pharyngeal pouches

8

Which pharyngeal arch is the biggest?

1st arch (has 2 prominences)

9

How many pharyngeal arches do we have?

Theoretically 6, but the 5th does not form in humans. They are numbered 1-4, 6.

10

Which arteries are associated with pharyngeal arches 1-3?

- Common carotid
- External carotid
- Internal carotid
+ Branches

11

The common, external and internal carotid arteries are associated with which pharyngeal arches?

1-3

12

Which arteries are associated with the 4th pharyngeal arch?

- Aortic arch on L
- Subclavian artery on R

13

Which arteries are associated with the 6th pharyngeal arch?

- Pulmonary arteries

14

Which cranial nerves are the pharyngeal arches associated with?

- CN V Trigeminal
- CN VII Facial
- CN IX Glossopharyngeal
- CN X Vagus

15

Which cranial nerve is associated with the 4th and 6th pharyngeal arches?

CN X Vagus

6th arch = Recurrent laryngeal branch

16

What structures are each pharyngeal arch associated with?

- Aortic arch
- Vein
- Cranial nerve
- Cartilage bar

17

Name the cartilage bar which develops from the 1st pharyngeal arch. What are its derivatives?

- Meckels cartilage
- Mandible, Malleus, Incus

18

What are the derivatives of the cartilage bars which form from the 4th and 6th pharyngeal arches?

- Epiglottis
- Thyroid
- Arytenoids
- Cricoid

19

From which pharyngeal arch do the muscles of mastication and the digastric muscle derive?

1st pharyngeal arch

20

From which pharyngeal arch do the muscles of facial expression derive?

2nd pharyngeal arch

21

From which pharyngeal arch do the intrinsic muscles of the larynx derive?

6th pharyngeal arch

22

What is the derivative of the 1st pharyngeal cleft?

External auditory meatus

23

If remnants of pharyngeal clefts other than the 1st one remain, cysts and fistulae may develop along the border of which muscle?

Anterior border of Sternocleidomastoid

24

What is the derivative of the 1st pharyngeal pouch?

Eustachian tube and middle ear cavity

25

What is the derivative of the 2nd pharyngeal pouch?

Palatine tonsil

26

What are the derivatives of the 3rd pharyngeal pouch?

Inferior parathyroid glands
Thymus

27

What are the derivatives of the 4th pharyngeal pouch?

Superior parathyroid glands
C cells of Thyroid gland

28

Which cranial nerve is associated with the 1st pharyngeal pouch?

CN V3

29

Which cranial nerve is associated with the 2nd pharyngeal pouch?

CN VII

30

Which cranial nerve is associated with the 3rd pharyngeal pouch?

CN IX

31

What are the derivatives of the cartilage bar in pharyngeal arch 2?

- Stapes
- Styloid process
- Part of Hyoid

32

What is the derivative of the cartilage bar in pharyngeal arch 3?

Part of Hyoid

33

From which pharyngeal arch does the cricothyroid and pharyngeal constrictor muscles derive?

4th pharyngeal arch