5 - Head & Neck - Blood Vessels + Lymphatics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 5 - Head & Neck - Blood Vessels + Lymphatics Deck (38):
1

The vertebral arteries are branches of which arteries?

Subclavian arteries

2

Describe the route of the vertebral arteries from their origin to the formation of the basilar artery:

- Branch from subclavian arteries
- Ascend through transverse foramina of c-spine (except C7)
- Enter subarachnoid space between atlas and occipital bone
- Passes through foramen magnum
- Curves around medulla to join other vertebral artery = basilar artery

3

Beneath which anatomical landmark does the right common carotid branch from the brachiocephalic artery?

Behind the right sternoclavicular joint

4

Where do the common carotid arteries terminate?

- Upper border of the Thyroid Cartilage level, deep to SCM
~ C4

5

How can you locate the site of the carotid sinus? Why may this be helpful?

- Upper border of the Thyroid Cartilage level, deep to SCM
~ C4 level

- Carotid massage: Rubbing this area can alleviate a supra-ventricular tachycardia

6

When measuring the JVP, are you looking for the external or internal jugular vein?

Internal Jugular Vein

7

Which of the internal and external carotid arteries give branches during its ascent through the neck?

External carotid artery

8

Name the 8 branches of the external carotid artery:

1) Superior Thyroid
2) Lingual
3) Facial
4) Ascending pharyngeal
5) Occipital
6) Posterior auricular
7) Superficial Temporal
8) Maxillary

9

Which 2 branches does the external carotid give within the parotid gland?

1) Superficial Temporal
2) Maxillary

10

Which vein drains most of the structures of the face?

Facial vein
- drains into internal jugular vein

11

Why is it important to remember that the facial vein recieves blood from the sup. and inf. ophthalmic veins?

Sup. and Inf. ophthalmic veins are directly connected to the Pterygoid venous plexus and the Cavernous sinus
= Potential route for infection or clot into the intracranial system

12

Where is the danger triangle of the face?

From corners of mouth to bridge of nose
- Incl. nose + maxilla

13

Which veins provide a potential route for infection from the scalp into the cranial cavity?

Emissary veins

14

List some structures which do not contain lymphatic vessels:

- Cornea
- Lens
- Inner ear
- Cartilage

15

What cells are found in lymph nodes?

- B cells
- T cells
- Macrophages

16

Which deep cervical lymph node is most frequently enlarged?

Jugulo-digastric node
- drains palatine tonsil

17

Where is the jugulo-digastric lymph node located, and what structures does it drain?

- Below and behind the angle of the mandible
- Oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, palatine tonsil, tongue

18

Which lymph node is often swollen in tonsillitis?

Jugulo-digastric node

19

Which deep cervical lymph node drains the trachea, oesophagus and thyroid gland?

Jugulo-omohyoid node

20

What is the name often given to an enlarged left supraclavicular lymph node?

Virchow's node

21

What is Trosier's sign?

A hard, enlarged left supraclavicular lymph node, a sign of metastatic abdominal malignancy

22

Which superficial lymph node drains the lips and chin?

Submental node

23

Which superficial lymph node drains the face (except the lips and chin)?

Submandibular node

24

Which superficial lymph nodes drain the back and sides of the head (including the auricle)?

Pre- and Post Auricular nodes
Occipital node

25

Which superficial lymph nodes drain the neck?

- Anterior cervical
- Posterior cervical
- Superficial cervical

26

Name the superficial lymph nodes of the head + neck region:

- Submental
- Submandibular
- Pre-auricular
- Post-auricular
- Occipital
- Anterior cervical
- Posterior cervical
- Superficial cervical

27

Into which vessel do the deep cervical lymph nodes drain?

Thoracic duct
- Into the left subclavian vein

28

Into which vessel does the thoracic duct drain into?

Left subclavian vein

29

Lymph may contain:

- Tissue fluid
- Small proteins
- Lipids (chylomicrons from gut lymphatics)
- Damaged cells
- Bacteria
- Cancer cells

30

How many litres of lymph is produced on average per day?

~ 3-4 L

31

The lymphatic system has no central pump, so how does it ensure one-directional flow?

- Valves
- Uses artery pulsation or muscle contraction to keep up flow

32

What structures does the Thoracic duct drain?

- Entire L side of body
- Right side of pelvis
- Right lower limb

33

What structures does the right lymphatic duct drain?

- Right side of head + neck
- Right arm
- Right side of torso

34

Define lymphoedema:

Abnormal collection of protein-rich fluid, causing tissue swelling, due to compromised lymphatic system

35

List some causes of lymphoedema:

- Infection (parasites)
- Removal of lymph nodes
- Damage to lymphatic system (ie chemotherapy)
- Lack of limb movement
- Congenital (ie Milroy's syndrome)

36

Which tonsils form the Waldeyer's tonsillar ring?

- Pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids)
- Tubal/Eustachian/Gerlach's tonsils
- Palatine tonsils
- Lingual tonsils

37

Where is the Waldeyer's tonsillar ring?

Within the naso- and oro-pharynx

38

Before performing a carotid massage, what would a doctor do to minimise the risk of causing a TIA/stroke?

Listen with stethoscope over the carotid artery for bruits, which may indicate atheroma formation