Anaemia Flashcards Preview

Haematology & Oncology > Anaemia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anaemia Deck (17)
1

What are the 3 possible mechanisms that leads to anaemia?

1. Bleeding
2. Production problems
3. Haemolysis

2

What is microcytic anaemia and what are the causes of microcytic anaemia?

Microcytic anaemia = <80fL
Possible causes:
1. Iron deficiency anaemia
2. Anaemia of chronic diseases
3. Thalassaemia
4. Lead toxicity
5. Sideroblastic anaemia

3

What is the normal cell size of red blood cells?

80-100fL

4

What are the causes of normocytic anaemia?

Acute blood loss
Anaemia of inflammation/ Anaemia of chronic inflammatory condition.
Multiple myeloma - must always rule this out

5

What are the causes of macrocytic anaemia?

Folate or vitamin B12 deficiency.
Pregnancy
Thyroid problems
Myelodysplastic syndrome
Post-splenectomy
Alcohol excess - think of this when blood tests are otherwise normal
Drugs, such as Methotrexate
Liver diseases (Cirrhosis)

6

What are the signs of iron-deficiency anaemia?

Fatigue
Dyspnoea
Headache
Pallor
Atrophic glossitis
However, some may be asymptomatic, even in severe anaemia.

7

Who should be referred via the urgent 2-week referral pathway - if iron-deficiency anaemia is detected?

All males aged above 60 and all females above 55.
Anyone less than 50yo but has rectal bleeding should be considered to be referred urgently.

8

What are the common causes of GI tract blood loss?

Aspirin and NSAIDs
Gastric carcinoma
Colonic carcinoma
Benign gastric ulceration
Angiodysplasia

9

What are the malabsorption causes of iron-deficiency anaemia?

Coeliac disease, Gastrectomy, H. Pylori infection.
Or less commonly, Schistosomiasis and Hookworm, or IBD.

10

What biochemical test is used to confirm iron deficiency?
What value confirms this?

Serum Ferritin levels.
<15micrograms/L confirms iron deficiency.

11

Ileal resection can put someone at risk of which type of anaemia?

Vitamin B12 deficiency anaemia - becuase vitamin B12 is absorbed in the terminal ileum.

12

What are the features of B12 deficiency anaemia?

- All symptoms of anaemia, such as fatigue, dyspnoea and headache.
- "lemon tinge" in the skin due to combined effect of pallor and mild jaundice (due to haemolysis),
- Glossitis - beefy-red, sore tongue.
- Angular cheilosis - a.k.a. stomatitis - ulcerations at the corner of mouth.

13

What is pernicious anaemia?

Pernicious anaemia is an autoimmune disorder in which there is atrophic gastritis, leading to achlorhydria and a lack of gastric intrinsic factor secretion.

14

Why is there a lower threshold for upper GI endoscopy in those with pernicious anaemia?

Pernicious anaemia increases risk of gastric carcinoma by 3-fold.

15

What are the specific tests for Pernicious Anaemia?

Parietal cell antibodies and Intrinsic Factor antibodies.

16

Which group of individuals are prone to VitB12 deficiency anaemia? Why?


Vegans are prone to Vitamin B12 deficiency anaemia.
because VitB12 is found in meat, fish and diary products.

17

In patients with normocytic anaemia, how is multiple myeloma diagnosed? (i.e. what are the features of Multiple Myeloma)

CRAB
C - HyperCalcaemia
R - Renal failure
A - Anaemia (due to infiltration of the bone marrow, causing decreased ability of the BM to make RBC)
B - lytic Bone lesions