Flashcards in Bone Marrow Failure Deck (11)
What are the signs and symptoms of Bone Marrow Failure?
Anaemia - Tiredness, Weakness, Pallor, Breathlessness, Tachycardia
Neutropenia - recurrent or severe bacterial infections.
Thrombocytopenia - easy bruising, petechiae, bleeding from the nose and/or gums.
Presence of hepatomegaly, splenomegaly or lymphadenopathy suggests a diagnosis of leukaemia.
What are the signs pointing towards leukaemia?
Presence of hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy suggests a diagnosis of leukaemia.
What condition presents with pancytopenia and hypocellular bone marrow?
What are the common causes of aplastic anaemia?
Most cases are acquired and immune-mediated.
- Infection: EBV, HIV, parvovirus or mycobacteria
- Toxin exposure: Benzene
- Drugs: Sulphonamides
What is the cause of pancytopaenia with hypercellular bone marrow?
Bone marrow infiltration: Most commonly by cancerous cells:
- Acute leukaemia
- Myelodysplastic syndromes
- Infiltration with lymphoma
- Breast, Thyroid, Kidney, Prostate, Lung cancers
How do patients with acute leukaemia presents?
Bone marrow failure - pancytopenia
General symptoms - Sweats, Weight loss, Anorexia, Flu-like symptoms
Tissue infiltration - CNS, Testes, Gums, Skin, Thymus, Nodes
What is an iatrogenic cause of BM failure?
Bone marrow failure is a frequent side effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
What is the definition of febrile neutropenia?
Febrile neutropenia is defined as an oral temperature ≥38.5°C or two consecutive readings of ≥38.0°C for two hours and an absolute neutrophil count ≤0.5 x 10^9/L, or expected to fall below 0.5 x 10^9/L
What is the normal neutrophil count?
2.5-7.5 x 10^9/L
What is considered severe neutropenia?
When neutrophil count is <0.5 x 10^9/L