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Flashcards in Leukaemia and Lymphoma Deck (20)
1

Reed-Sternberg cells are also known as what cells?
In which condition are they present in?

Reed-Sternberg cells are also known as lacunar histiocytes (for certain types). They are multi-nucleated giant cells.
They are seen in Hodgkin's lymphoma.

2

Which condition has a high percentage of patients (80%) with the Philadelphia chromosome?

Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia.

3

How is AML diagnosed?

Bone marrow biopsy.

4

What is the condition indicated if Auer rods are found in cells during microscopy?

Auer rods are diagnostic of AML, as they are commonly present in malignant myeloid cells.

5

What is a common cause (or a common risk factor) of Hodgkin's lymphoma?

EBV.
Other risk factors include: HIV/AIDS or FHx of Hodgkin's Lymphoma

6

What is the hallmark of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia?

Accumulation of B cells that have escaped programmed cell death and undergone cell-cycle arrest at G0-G1 phase.

7

What does CLL commonly presents with?

Hepatosplenomegaly and multiple enlarged rubbery non-tender lymph nodes.

8

What does CML commonly presents with?

Splenomegaly

9

What does low grade lymphoma and high grade lymphoma means?

Low grade refers to slow growing lymphoma/indolent lymphoma.
High grade refers to aggressive type lymphoma that grows rapidly.

10

What is the most common type of low grade Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma?

Follicular lymphoma

11

What is the most common type of high grade Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma? In adults, and in children.

Diffuse large B cell lymphoma is most common in adults.
Burkitt lympoma is most common in children.

12

Is Hodgkin's lymphoma or Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma more common?

Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

13

The presence of enlarged lymph nodes in which area is most worrying?

Supraclavicular lymph nodes are most worrying

14

When should one suspect malignancy in a patient presenting with lymphadenopathy and refer the patient on?

When lymph node is >1cm for 6 weeks or more.

Any patients with generalised lymphadenopathy, i.e. having 2 or more enlarged LN in non-contiguous regions.

Risk of malignancy increases in those >40yo.

15

Can Fine Needle Aspiration from affected LN be diagnostic in lymphoma?

No, FNA is not useful in diagnosing lymphoma.
Biopsy is needed - requires tissue samples

16

What is an example of low grade lymphoma?

Follicular lymphoma

17

What is an example of a high grade lymphoma?

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

18

Are all/most types of Hodgkin's lymphoma curable?

Mostly curable. treat for all presenting with Hodgkin's lymphoma

19

Are most types of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma curable?

No.
Low grade Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, such as Follicular lymphoma, is not curable. Defer treatment if asymptomatic.
High grade Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, such as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, is curable, but very aggressive. Treat.

20

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma can evolve from which cancers?

CLL and follicular NHL