Antarctica's governance (treaties and organisations) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Antarctica's governance (treaties and organisations) Deck (47)
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1

when was the Antarctic treaty system signed

1959

2

how many countries have signed the Antarctic treaty system

52 (including the UK and USA)

3

what does ASOC stand for

Antarctic and Southern Ocean Coalition

4

what is ASOC

an NGO

5

ASOCs council consists of over how many member organisations

30

6

what is the benefit of ASOC being an NGO

they do not speak on behalf of governments but simply in the best interest of Antarctica and its ecosystem

7

when was ASOC created

mid 1970s

8

what does ASOCs current work involve

providing information on how to protect the Antarctic environment to treaty parties
report back to the public on the progress/lack of on key conservation issues
asoc campaigners are experts in their subject areas and the papers they produce are widely respected and cited
enhance public awareness

9

what is ASOCs role in the Antarctic treaty system

they are an environmental observer so provide information to governments and represent the global conservation community

10

how effective are ASOC in monitoring threats and protecting Antarctica

very effective, particularly due to their status as an NGO, their team of experts and legislation.
also involved in enforcing the legislation

11

example of organisation ASOC recently set up and what it does

Members of International Maritime Organisation (IMO)- which from 2017 will introduce mandatory safety and pollution prevention measures for cruise ships and large cargo ships

12

negative impact of ASOC being an NGO

have no political backing - so when it comes down to it there is no outright political support for the legislation they pass unless they are able to convince key governments

13

what are ASOC campaigning to do in the Ross Sea and why

campaigning for it to be declared an MPA (Marine Protected Area) as it is one of the last remaining stretches of ocean on earth that has not been harmed by human activity

14

what area of Antarctica does the Antarctic treaty not cover

the sea

15

what governs the ATS

Antarctic treaty consultative meetings- holds annual meetings

16

the ATS is a combination of

the Antarctic treaty and other related systems

17

examples of articles (terms) within the Antarctic treaty

treaty nations will exchange plans for their scientific programs (means no conflict or unnecessary experiments)
nuclear explosions banned
national laws do not apply to stations or areas, but only to the citizens of those countries

18

has any party called to have the treaty review

no- in the original treaty it said that any party could call for a review after the expiration of 30 years but no party has done so

19

when was the Antarctic treaty put in place

1961

20

what is the IWC

international whaling commission

21

what did the IWC put in place in 1982

a global whaling moratorium (a moratorium is a law imposed by something other than a governing body)

22

what is the benefit of a total ban on whaling

easy to see when a country is breaking the law - there is no confusion as it is outright banned. everyone loses out equally

23

reasons the moratorium was required

by 1970 the total number of blue whales had decreased to less than 6,000- if hunting had continued they would have gone extinct

24

how effective has the southern ocean whale sanctuary been in stopping Antarctic whaling (how it HAS been effective)

protects the entirety of the area around Antarctica
ecotourism provides economic benefits to those who rely on whales for an income
raise awareness for whaling

25

how effective has the southern ocean whale sanctuary been in stopping Antarctic whaling (how it HAS NOT been effective)

Is not law
doesn't provide sanctuary for whales outside of that area
doesn't prevent 'scientific' whaling
japan completely ignored it
no large body behind it- cant be properly enforced
has to be kept up to date as whales migrate

26

what is SCAR

scientific committee on Antarctic research

27

what does SCAR provide

provides international independent scientific advice to the Antarctic Treaty System and other bodies

28

what type of organisation is the IWC

a governmental organisation

29

key features of the international convention for the regulation of whaling

conserving whale stocks
stops commercial whaling
allows scientific whaling
assists with the whale tourism industry
sets up whale sanctuary

30

when was the madrid protocol put in place

1991