Antarctica's governance (treaties and organisations) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Antarctica's governance (treaties and organisations) Deck (47)
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when was the Antarctic treaty system signed



how many countries have signed the Antarctic treaty system

52 (including the UK and USA)


what does ASOC stand for

Antarctic and Southern Ocean Coalition


what is ASOC

an NGO


ASOCs council consists of over how many member organisations



what is the benefit of ASOC being an NGO

they do not speak on behalf of governments but simply in the best interest of Antarctica and its ecosystem


when was ASOC created

mid 1970s


what does ASOCs current work involve

providing information on how to protect the Antarctic environment to treaty parties
report back to the public on the progress/lack of on key conservation issues
asoc campaigners are experts in their subject areas and the papers they produce are widely respected and cited
enhance public awareness


what is ASOCs role in the Antarctic treaty system

they are an environmental observer so provide information to governments and represent the global conservation community


how effective are ASOC in monitoring threats and protecting Antarctica

very effective, particularly due to their status as an NGO, their team of experts and legislation.
also involved in enforcing the legislation


example of organisation ASOC recently set up and what it does

Members of International Maritime Organisation (IMO)- which from 2017 will introduce mandatory safety and pollution prevention measures for cruise ships and large cargo ships


negative impact of ASOC being an NGO

have no political backing - so when it comes down to it there is no outright political support for the legislation they pass unless they are able to convince key governments


what are ASOC campaigning to do in the Ross Sea and why

campaigning for it to be declared an MPA (Marine Protected Area) as it is one of the last remaining stretches of ocean on earth that has not been harmed by human activity


what area of Antarctica does the Antarctic treaty not cover

the sea


what governs the ATS

Antarctic treaty consultative meetings- holds annual meetings


the ATS is a combination of

the Antarctic treaty and other related systems


examples of articles (terms) within the Antarctic treaty

treaty nations will exchange plans for their scientific programs (means no conflict or unnecessary experiments)
nuclear explosions banned
national laws do not apply to stations or areas, but only to the citizens of those countries


has any party called to have the treaty review

no- in the original treaty it said that any party could call for a review after the expiration of 30 years but no party has done so


when was the Antarctic treaty put in place



what is the IWC

international whaling commission


what did the IWC put in place in 1982

a global whaling moratorium (a moratorium is a law imposed by something other than a governing body)


what is the benefit of a total ban on whaling

easy to see when a country is breaking the law - there is no confusion as it is outright banned. everyone loses out equally


reasons the moratorium was required

by 1970 the total number of blue whales had decreased to less than 6,000- if hunting had continued they would have gone extinct


how effective has the southern ocean whale sanctuary been in stopping Antarctic whaling (how it HAS been effective)

protects the entirety of the area around Antarctica
ecotourism provides economic benefits to those who rely on whales for an income
raise awareness for whaling


how effective has the southern ocean whale sanctuary been in stopping Antarctic whaling (how it HAS NOT been effective)

Is not law
doesn't provide sanctuary for whales outside of that area
doesn't prevent 'scientific' whaling
japan completely ignored it
no large body behind it- cant be properly enforced
has to be kept up to date as whales migrate


what is SCAR

scientific committee on Antarctic research


what does SCAR provide

provides international independent scientific advice to the Antarctic Treaty System and other bodies


what type of organisation is the IWC

a governmental organisation


key features of the international convention for the regulation of whaling

conserving whale stocks
stops commercial whaling
allows scientific whaling
assists with the whale tourism industry
sets up whale sanctuary


when was the madrid protocol put in place