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Flashcards in basal ganglia and cerebellum Deck (27)
1

cerebellum made up of ?

anterior and posterior lobe

2

The cerebellum is attached to the brainstem via?

3 stalks termed Peduncles

3

outputs from the cerebellum?

the only output is via the axons of Purkinje cells which mainly synapse on neurons of the deep cerebellar nuclei

4

lesion on the right side of the cerebellum will affect which side of the body?

ipsilateral so right

5

Unilateral hemispheric lesion in cerebellum causes?

Disturbance of coordination in limbs. Can result in intention tremor and unsteady gait in the absence of weakness or sensory loss.

6

what is dysarthria?

slow, slurred speech

7

Bilateral cerebellar dysfunction, what would patient be like?

dysarthria, bilateral incoordination of the arms and a staggering, wide based gait (cerebellar ataxia).

8

what is inability to produce language, although understanding is generally intact?

aphasia (a for apple)

9

what is expressive aphasia also known as?

Brocas aphasia

10

what typically results in bilateral cerebellar hemisphere dysfunction and presents with cerebellar ataxia in A and E?

acute alcohol exposure

11

what are the functions of the basal ganglia?

facilitate purposeful movement
inhibit unwanted movements
role in posture and muscle tone

12

a number of masses of grey matter located near the base of each cerebral hemisphere?

basal ganglia

13

name the components of the basal ganglia?

caudate nucleus
putamen
globus pallidus
subthalamic nucleus
substantia nigra

14

darkly stained section of the basal ganglia?

substantia nigra

15

what is the pathology of parkinsons disease?

degeneration of dopaminergic neurons of the substantial nigra

16

the basal ganglia works with the motor complex to enhance what?

enhance the outflow of the thalamus, enhancing the desired movement

17

how does the basal ganglia work with the motor cortex to inhibit unwanted movement ?

inhibits outflow of the thalamus

18

Unilateral lesions of the basal ganglia affect which side of body?

contralateral

19

what are dyskinesias?

abnormal, involuntary movements

20

what are examples of dyskinesias?

tremor (sinusoidal movements)
chorea (rapid asymmetrical movements, usually affecting distal limb musculature)
myoclonus (muscle jerks)

21

signs of parkinsons disease?

akinesia, resting tremor, rigidity

22

what is akinesia?

absence of movement

23

what is the inheritance pattern of huntingtons disease?

autosomal dominant

24

pathology of huntingtons disease?

progressive degeneration of the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex

25

signs of huntingtons disease?

chorea and progressive dementia

26

i what conditions do you get change in basal ganglia function?

huntingtons and parkinsons

27

where are intended movements initially planned?

motor cortex