Flashcards in basal ganglia and cerebellum Deck (27)
cerebellum made up of ?
anterior and posterior lobe
The cerebellum is attached to the brainstem via?
3 stalks termed Peduncles
outputs from the cerebellum?
the only output is via the axons of Purkinje cells which mainly synapse on neurons of the deep cerebellar nuclei
lesion on the right side of the cerebellum will affect which side of the body?
ipsilateral so right
Unilateral hemispheric lesion in cerebellum causes?
Disturbance of coordination in limbs. Can result in intention tremor and unsteady gait in the absence of weakness or sensory loss.
what is dysarthria?
slow, slurred speech
Bilateral cerebellar dysfunction, what would patient be like?
dysarthria, bilateral incoordination of the arms and a staggering, wide based gait (cerebellar ataxia).
what is inability to produce language, although understanding is generally intact?
aphasia (a for apple)
what is expressive aphasia also known as?
what typically results in bilateral cerebellar hemisphere dysfunction and presents with cerebellar ataxia in A and E?
acute alcohol exposure
what are the functions of the basal ganglia?
facilitate purposeful movement
inhibit unwanted movements
role in posture and muscle tone
a number of masses of grey matter located near the base of each cerebral hemisphere?
name the components of the basal ganglia?
darkly stained section of the basal ganglia?
what is the pathology of parkinsons disease?
degeneration of dopaminergic neurons of the substantial nigra
the basal ganglia works with the motor complex to enhance what?
enhance the outflow of the thalamus, enhancing the desired movement
how does the basal ganglia work with the motor cortex to inhibit unwanted movement ?
inhibits outflow of the thalamus
Unilateral lesions of the basal ganglia affect which side of body?
what are dyskinesias?
abnormal, involuntary movements
what are examples of dyskinesias?
tremor (sinusoidal movements)
chorea (rapid asymmetrical movements, usually affecting distal limb musculature)
myoclonus (muscle jerks)
signs of parkinsons disease?
akinesia, resting tremor, rigidity
what is akinesia?
absence of movement
what is the inheritance pattern of huntingtons disease?
pathology of huntingtons disease?
progressive degeneration of the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex
signs of huntingtons disease?
chorea and progressive dementia
i what conditions do you get change in basal ganglia function?
huntingtons and parkinsons