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Flashcards in Stroke Deck (45)
1

which is the most common type of stroke?

ischaemic (80-90%)
haemorrhagic is only 10-20%

2

TIA - clinical effects will resolve within?

24 hours

3

what usually causes a TIA ?

micro emboli

4

what is hemiparesis ?

weakness

5

most common stroke involves what artery?

middle cerebral

6

do you get pain?

no, there are no pain receptors in the brain itself

7

strokes most common at which time of day?

morning

8

absolute contraindications to thrombolysis ?

Major surgery
Active internal bleed
Prolonged CPR
Pregnancy
Severe liver disease
Hypertension
Cerebral neoplasm

9

which drugs can cause stroke?

cocaine and OTC cold remedies that contain vasoconstrictors

10

how would you visualise Carotid artery Stenosis?

angiogram of head/neck

11

80% of TIAs due to?

thromboembolus

12

what is Amaurosis fugax?

sudden loss of vision in one eye, caused by an infarct in the retinal artery(ies). You can sometimes see the obstruction on ophthalmoscopy, which is useful clinically, as the same symptoms is seen in migraine – where the arteries will always appear normal. Thus if a defect is visible, it is highly likely to be the result of a TIA

13

After TIA, can check brachial artery pressures, A difference of more than 20mmHg between arms suggests

subclavian artery stenosis

14

which score predicts the likelihood of a further CVA event

ABCD2 score

15

follow up investigations after stroke

carotid doppler scan
echo - to check for cardiac emboli source
ECG
brain imaging?

16

what is the management of a TIA and when would you commence treatment ?

high dose aspirin
once diagnosis is confirmed – usually after CT has confirmed there is no haemorrhage stroke (if symptoms have resolved then almost certainly has been ischaemic rather than haemorrhagic)

17

if symptoms resolve within 24 hours, what does this suggest about the nature of event?

its ischaemic, not haemorrhagic

18

what would clinical picture be from stroke arising from middle cerebral artery?

Hemiparesis
Hemiplegia
Limbs usually floppy, and reflexes reduced/absent
Facial weakness (not always)
Hemianopia – visual field defect in which vision is lost in half of the visual field in one/both eyes.
Aphasia – when the dominant hemisphere is affected
Important to ask about left and right handedness!
These symptoms usually develop rapidly, over a period of minutes, or less commonly they can develop over a few hours.

19

lacunar infarct, where is emboli?

deep arteries of brain

20

infarctions will show up as what shape on both MRI and CT?

wedge shape

21

what is the onset of a stroke like

sudden (a few mins)

22

In stroke, what should be maintained in normal limits?

blood glucose, hydration, oxygen saturation and temperature

23

should be given as soon as possible if a haemorrhagic stroke has been excluded?

aspirin

24

why can children not be given aspirin?

it increases the chance of reyes syndrome

25

with regards to AF, when should anti coagulation be commenced?

until brain imaging has excluded haemorrhage, and usually not until 14 days have passed from the onset of an ischaemic stroke'

26

what time frame should thrombolysis only be given in ?

within 4.5 hours

27

thrombolysis should only be given if wha is excluded?

haemorrhage

28

what drug is given as thrombolysis?

alteplese

29

if patient has seizure at onset of stroke, can they get thrombolysis?

no

30

if patient has had previous TBI or stroke in last 3 months, or suspected? cannot have thrombolysis?

subarachnoid haemorrhage

31

what is recommended as secondary prevention of stroke?

clopidogrel

32

in acute stroke patients, in the absence of haemorrhage, anticoagulation therapy should be commenced after how long in AF?

2 weeks

33

when would patients be on lifelong clopidogrel?

TIA, isachaemic stroke or peripheral arterial disease

34

types of AF?

paroxysmal, permanent, fast

35

continuous atrial fibrillation which cannot be cardioverted or if attempts to do so are deemed inappropriate. which type of AF?

permanent

36

what happens during ischaemic stroke ?

blood supply to an area of the brain is reduced, resulting in tissue hypoperfusion

37

can you get atherosclerosis in the brain vessels?

yes

38

the two subtypes of haemorrhage stroke?

intracerebral haemorrhage
sub arachnoid haemorrhage

39

in SAH, where does the blood collect?

between arachnoid and pia (below the arachnoid)

40

intracerebral can be sub classified into two. what are these?

intraparenchymal (within the brain tissue)
intraventricular (bleeding within the ventricles)

41

4 types of stroke in oxford classification?

TACS
PACS
POCS - posteroir circulation syndrome
LACS

42

what there things need to be present for a diagnosis of TACS?

unilateral weakness
homonomous hemianopia
Higher cerebral dysfunction (dysphasia, visuospatial disorder)

43

which one would you get cerebellar signs in?

POCS

44

pure sensory stroke?

lacunar

45

what is dysphasia?

marked reduction in the generation of speech