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Flashcards in brain tumours and head injury Deck (27)
1

symptoms of brain tumour?

headaches
vomiting
mental changes
seizures

2

headache that wakes someone up

red flag

3

Invstigations for brain tumour

CT
MRI
LP
PET
Lesion biopsy
EEG

4

which type of cancer commonly metastasises to the brain/

lung

5

how are they graded?

WHO grading system

6

grade 1 astrocytoma - malignant?

benign

7

how to low grade astrocytomas present?

seizures

8

low grade astrocytomas, are they dangerous?

they are not benign

9

grade 2 astrocytoma treatment?

radio and chemo

10

what do grade 2 astrocytomas become?

glioblastoma (G2G)

11

most common primary brain tumour?

glioblastoma

12

In head trauma you get release of?

excitatory amino acids (glutamate and aspartate)

13

which receptors do glutamate and aspartate bind to?

NMDA

14

get release of intracellular ___ after head trauma?

calcium. Release of intracellular calcium, activation of phospholipases, breakdown of cell membrane, cell swelling, activation of apoptosis.

15

aim for cerebral perfusion pressure of what after head injury?

60mmHg

16

In base of skull fracture, you get what signs in anterior cranial fossa fracture?

panda/racoon eyes

17

middle cranial fossa fracture?

battle sign over mastoid

18

Eyes pneumonic for Glasgow Coma Scale

1. (E)yes Closed
2. (Y) shaped sharp pricking object (responds to pain)
3. (E)ar piercing noise (responds to voice)
4. (S)pontaneous (opens eyes spontaneously)

19

Voice pneumonic for glasgow coma scale

Voiceless - 1
OOOh -- obscure incoherent sounds - 2
Inappropriate words - 3
Confused and Disorientated - 4
Elegant speech and orientated - 5

20

Pain - glasgow coma scale neumonic?

old ben
6. obeys commands
5. localises to pain
4. draw away
3. bend/flexion (decorticate posture by pain)
2. extension (decerebrate posture by pain)
1. no motor response (motionless)

21

minimum score you can get on GCS?

3

22

a coma equates to a GCS score of ?

8 or less

23

what can't a patient do in a coma ?

does not open eyes, does not obey commands, does not speak

24

when should you request a CT scan?

any patient with a skull fracture
or not orientated
focal neurological signs
taking anti coagulants

25

why sedate in head injury?

reduces metabolic rate
reduces cerebral blood flow
reduces ICP

26

what does mannitol do?

improves Microperfusion

27

what are the late effects of head injury?

epilepsy, CSF leak and cognitive problems