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3 goals of sport psychology

measure psychological phenomena
investigate the relationship between psychological variables and performance
applying theoretical knowledge to improce athletic performance


state anxiety

the actual experience of apprehensions and uncontrolled arousal


trait anxiety

personality characteristic which represents a latent disposition to perceive situations as threatening


what happens during an anxious state when arousal is uncontrolled

a high degree of ego-involvement in which the athlete may perceive a threat to self esteem
a perceived discrepancy between one's ability and the demands for athletic success
a fear of the consequences f failure (loss of approval from teammates or coach)


cognitive anxiety

a psychological state involving task-irrelevant mental processes that are negative in nature, can deter performance propotionally , THE MORE THE ATHLETE EXPERIENCES COGNITIVE ANXIETY THE WORSE THE PERFORMANCE phsyical symptoms such as tense muscles, tachycardia (fast heart rate)


somatic anxiety

uncontrolled arousal influenced by cognitive anxiety, shows an invertd U relationship to performance


psychic arousal or energy

a continuum of psychological intensity, activation and focus. positively related to performance


physiological arousal

a psychologial neural intensity dimension of physical arousal


selective attention is referred to by athletes as?

their level of focus and refers to the suppression of task irrelevant stimuli and thoughts


preparatory routine

consciously directs thought to task-relevant and controllable concerns


what explains why teams lose against easy teams

cue utilization


broad external attentional focus

ability to effectively manage many environmental stimuli simultaneously


overloaded by external stimuli

tendency to be confused because of the intake of too many stimuli


broad internal attentional focus

ability to effectively manage many internal stimuli


overloaded by internal stimuli

tendency to be confused because of the intake of too many stimuli


narrow attentional focus

ability to effectively narrow attention


reduced attentional focus

tendency to reduce attention so that task-relvant information is lost


ideal performance state

absence of fear
no thinking about performance
a narrow focus of attention on activity
a sense of effortlessness
a sense of personal control
a distortion of time and space