Dementia Flashcards Preview

Neurology > Dementia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Dementia Deck (45):
1

What are Lewy bodies

Eosinophilic, intrcytoplasmic neuronal inclusion bodies

2

Features of Lewy body dementia

fluctuating
Hallucinations (visual)
Parkinsonism
REM sleep disorder

3

What is the most common cause of dementia

Alzheimer's disease

4

Risk factors for Alzheimer's

old age
trisomy 21
FH
APP
ApoE4
head injuries

5

Neurodegenerative proteinopathy in Alzheimer's disease

B-amyloid plaques extracellularly
Tau neurofibrillary tangles intracellularly

6

Clinical presentation of Alzheimer's

Memory loss and forgetfulness
chronic / insidious onset
lack of insight
later: difficulty with language, behaviour, depression and orientation

7

Management of Alzheimer's disease

Mild/mod - AChE inhibitor rivastigmine
2nd line NMDA antagonist memantine

8

What is another name for frontotemporal dementia
(FTD)

Pick's disease
atrophy of frontal and temporal lobes

9

What is the onset of FTD

early onset dementia

10

Features of FTD

frontal disinhibition
apathy
loss of insight
changes in character and social deterioration
aphasia: semantic and progressive non-fluent

11

Histological findings in FTD

Pick's cells - swollen neurons
Pick's bodies - intracytoplasmic filamentous inclusions

12

What is vascular dementia

cumulative damage to the brain via hypoxia ie successive cerebral infarcts

13

What is Creutzfeldt Jakob disease CJD/Prion disease

neurodegenerative disease with abnormal prion protein

14

What is gold standard investigation of CJD and its finding

Biopsy - spongiform change on histopathology

15

list acute forms of dementia

transient global amnesia
transient epileptic amnesia
viral encephalitis
trauma
stroke

16

what is transient global amnesia

acute anterograde amnesia preserved knowledge of self
lasts 4-6 hours

17

what is transient epileptic amnesia

episodic isolated memory loss associated with temporal lobe seizures with response to AEDs

18

Prion disease is an acute/subacute/chronic cognitive disorder

subacute

19

what is the most common human prion disease

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

20

what is CJD

neurodegenerative proteinopathy

21

how many abnormal prions are needed for a harmful effect

1
domino effect

22

what are the 4 subtypes of CJD

sporadic
variant
iatrogenic
genetic

23

of which protein is there neurodegenerative proteinopathy in Alzheimer's disease

amyloid

24

which pathways are disrupted in Alzheimer's

cholinergic

25

which investigations can be carried out in Alzheimer's

MRI - atrophy
SPECT - reduced metabolism
CSF - reduced amyloid and increased tau protein

26

of which protein is there neurodegenerative proteinopathy in FTD

tau

27

which other neurological disease can FTD be a part of

MND

28

investigations and findings for FTD

MRI - frontotemporal lobe atrophy
SPECT - decreased metabolism
CSF - increased tau, normal amyloid

29

what is vascular dementia

gradual cognitive disorder with presence of cerebrovascular disease

30

there is stepwise/gradual decline in vascular dementia

stepwise

31

of which protein is the neurodegenerative proteinopathy in DLB

a-synuclein

32

which pathways are disrupted in DLB

cholinergic and dopaminergic

33

DLB can worsen with neuroleptics such as haloperidol, true or false

true
haloperidol should never be given in parkinsonism

34

investigations in DLB

DaTSPECT scan
a-synuclein ligand imaging
a-synuclein CSF

35

management of DLB

small dose levodopa
trial anticholinesterases
support

36

core criteria of DLB

fluctuating cognition
recurrent well formed visual hallucination
presence of extrapyramidal features
also neuroleptic sensitivity

37

what is the difference between DLB and PD dementia

in someone with PD:
dementia within 1 year of presentation = DLB
dementia after 1 year of presentation = PDD

38

triad of features in huntington's disease

emotional
cognitive
motor

39

management of Huntington's disease

mood stabilisers
treatment for chorea
nurse specialist

40

who do you refer >65 yo with gradual onset dementia with no additional neurology to?

old age psychiatry

41

who do you refer <65 yo with unusual features of dementia to

neurology

42

what is the dementia screen for blood tests

B12
folate
TFT
syphilis
HIV
Ca
genetics

43

of which protein is there neurodegenerative proteinopathy in huntington's disease

huntington protein

44

CSF of Alzheimer's:
there is high/low B amyloid and high/low Tau

low B amyloid
high Tau

45

what kind of stroke are patient with Alzheimer's disease at risk of and why

Haemorrhagic stroke
B-amyloid deposits (cerebral amyloid angiopathy)