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Flashcards in Neuroanatomy Deck (119):
1

What components make up the nervous system

CNS and PNS

2

What makes up the CNS

Brain and spinal cord

3

What makes up the PNS

12 pairs of cranial nerves
31 pairs of spinal nerves

4

What makes up the brainstem

midbrain
pons
medulla oblongata

5

What makes up the diencephalon

thalamus + hypothalamus

6

What are the principle cells of the CNS

Neurons
Glial cells

7

What are the subtypes of glial cells

astrocytes
oligodendrocytes
microglia
ependymal cells

8

What are neurons

Communicating cells that receive information from synapses and transmit it to other neurons/effector cells

9

Most neurons are multipolar, true or false

True

10

Describe astrocytes

Type of glial cell
star shaped
roles in support, maintaining BBB, environmental homeostasis

11

There are more neurons than glial cells in the CNS, true or false

FALSE

12

There is connective tissue present in the CNS, true or false

FALSE, no connective tissue in CNS

13

What is the role of oligodendrocytes

produce myelin in CNS only
Have numerous branches

14

Where do microglia originate from

bone marrow / homopoietic origin

15

What is the role of microglia

immune monitoring and antigen presentation

16

What are ependymal cells

ciliated epithelium that line the ventricles and produce CSF

17

What does grey matter contain

neuron cell bodies / soma

18

What does white matter contain

axons

19

Where is grey matter found in the CNS

Brain - outside
Spinal cord - inside

20

Where is white matter found in the CNS

Brain - inside
Spinal cord - outside

21

somatosensory information is found in the pre / post central gyrus

POST central gyrus

22

Somatomotor information is found in the pre / post central gyrus

PRE central gyrus

23

Where is the cingulate gyrus found

above the corpus callosum

24

What is the corpus callosum

huge band of white matter connecting right and left cerebral hemispheres and transmitting neural messages between them

25

What is the calcarine sulcus

Primary visual cortex

26

How many lobes of the brain are there

5

27

What are the lobes of the brain

frontal
parietal
temporal
occipital
insular

28

Where is the insular lobe located

usually hidden deep in lateral sulcus

29

what are the meningeal layers

dura mater
arachnoid mater
pia mater

30

How many layers of dura are there

2

31

what space is found under the arachnoid mater and what is found inside

subarachnoid space contains CSF

32

describe the path of CSF and ventricles

lateral ventricles
interventricular foramen of monro
3rd ventricle
cerebral aqueduct
4th ventricle
foramen of magendie and luschka

33

what is a nucleus

collection of soma in the CNS

34

What is a ganglion

collection of soma in the PNS

35

what is a tract

collection of axons surrounded by connective tissue and blood vessels in the CNS

36

what is a nerve

collection of axons surrounded by connective tissue and blood vessels in the PNS

37

what modalities can a nerve be

somatic sensory
somatic motor
visceral afferent
sympathetic
parasympathetic

38

what modality do multipolar neurons tend to be and where is their soma found

motor
soma found in CNS

39

What modality do unipolar neurons tend to be and where is their soma found

sensory
soma found in PNS in dorsal root ganglion

40

How many pairs of spinal nerves are there and how many of each are cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral and coccygeal

31 pairs
C1-8
T1-12
L1-5
S1-5
Co 1

41

Where are spinal nerves only found

intervertebral foramina

42

What modality are the posterior root(lets)

sensory only

43

What modality are the anterior root(lets)

motor only

44

What modality are the spinal nerves and rami

mixed sensory and motor

45

What is a dermatome

area of skin supplied with sensory innervation by a single spinal nerve

46

what is a myotome

skeletal muscles with motor innervation by a single spinal nerve

47

are myotomes always deep to dermatomes

sometimes, eg:
T2-12 yes
C3,4,5 no

48

What are nerve plexuses and give examples

nerve plexus = joining of ANTERIOR rami of adjacent spinal nerves
cervical C1-4
brachial C5-T1
lumbar L1-4
sacral L5-S4

49

where are the cell bodies of sympathetic nerves found

lateral horn of the spinal cord

50

What can impaired sympathetic innervation to the head and neck cause

Horner's syndrome
miosis
ptosis
anhydrosis

51

What is the epidural space

Space between the bone and dura mater in the spinal cord only

52

How many lobes does the cerebellum have

3
anterior
posterior
floculonodular

53

How is the cerebellum attached to the brainstem

via peduncles
superior, middle and inferior

54

What are gyri called in the cerebellum

folia

55

name the 4 deep cerebellar nuclei

dentate
emboliform
globose
fastigi

56

how many layers make up the cerebellar cortex

3
molecular
Purkinje
Granule cell

57

where do fibres arriving (afferent) at the cerebellum come from

spinal cord
cerebral cortex
vestibular apparatus

58

Where do efferent projection from the cerebellum go through

Purkinje cell layer

59

Cerebellar hemispheres control the contralateral side of the body, true or false

FALSE
cerebellar hemispheres control ipsilateral side of the body
cerebral hemispheres control contralateral side of the body

60

What is the arterial blood supply to the cerebellum

superior cerebellar artery
anterior inferior cerebellar artery AICA
posterior inferior cerebellar artery PICA

61

What are the basal ganglia

group of subcortical nuclei
a number of masses of grey matter near the base of each cerebral hemisphere

62

What are the functions of the basal ganglia

facilitate purposeful movement
inhibit unwanted movement
role in posture and muscle tone

63

What structures make up the basal ganglia

caudate nucleus
putamen
globus pallidus
subthalamic nucleus
substantia nigra

64

What makes up the lenticular nucleus

putamen
globus pallidus

65

What makes up the striatum

caudate nucleus
putamen

66

What makes up the corpus striatum

caudate nucleus
putamen
globus pallidus

67

What is special about the substantia nigra

it produces a black pigment as a byproduct of producing dopamine

68

What pathways exist in the basal ganglia

direct
indirect

69

What is the function of the direct pathway

enhances outflow of thalamus and helps to initiate movement essentially by freeing the thalamus from inhibitory effects

70

What is the function of the indirect pathway

inhibits outflow of thalamus and dampens down activity resulting in increased suppression of unwanted movements

71

What does damage to the basal ganglia result in

changes in muscle tone
dyskinesias = abnormal involuntary movements

72

What are the groups of back muscles

extrinsic and intrinsic

73

What is the function of the extrinsic back muscles

move upper arms
attach back to pectoral girdle

74

What are the extrinsic back muscles called

rhomboid major and minor
levator scapulae
trapezius
latissimus dorsi

75

What does the anterior rami of cervical nerve innervate

rhomboids
levator scapulae
latissimus dorsi

76

What innervates the trapezius

spinal accessory nerve / CN XI

77

What is the function of the intrinsic back muscles

maintain posture and move the spine
muscles are entirely within back

78

what are the intrinsic back muscles

erector spinae
transversopinalis

79

describe the erector spinae muscles

superficial
3 vertical muscle groups

80

describe the transversospinalis muscle

deep
located between the transverse and spinous processes

81

what muscle is commonly suspected of being the cause of lower back pain

erector spinae

82

What is the nerve supply of the intrinsic back muscles

posterior rami branches of cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine

83

What back muscles cause spine extension

intrinsic muscles: erector spinae and transversospinalis

84

What back muscles cause spine flexion

psoas major and rectus abdominus

85

How many vertebrae are there in total in the human spine

33
C1-7
T1-12
L1-5
5 fused sacral
4 fused coccygeal

86

Where can spinal nerves be found

intervertebral foramen

87

list the ligaments of the spine

supraspinous
interspinous
ligamentum flavum
posterior longitudinal ligament
anterior longitudinal ligament

88

Anterior longitudinal ligament is (broad + strong / thin and weak) and is (anterior/posterior) to the vertebral bodies and prevents over (extension/flexion) of the spine

broad + strong
anterior
extension

89

List common features of the c-spine vertebrae

transverse foramen
bifid spinous process
triangular shaped vertebral foramen

90

what is the C1 vertebrae called, describe its features

atlas
no body or spinous process
has posterior and anterior arches instead

91

what is the C2 vertebrae called, describe its features

axis
odontoid process

92

Which vertebrae has the first palpable spinous process

C7

93

You can still see the posterior arch on c-spine xray, true or false

TRUE

94

at which level does the spinal cord end and what is the name given

L1/2
conus medullaris

95

What is the cauda equina

all the spinal nerve roots from L2 onwards

96

What modalities are present in the body wall/soma

General somatic afferent = sensory
General somatic efferent = motor
General visceral efferent = sympathetic motor
spinal reflexes

97

There are no parasympathetic fibres in the body wall/soma, true or false

TRUE

98

How can you test each spinal nerve segment's sensory function

dermatomes

99

How can you test each spinal nerve segment's motor function

myotomes

100

How can you test each spinal nerve segment's sensory and motor function

spinal cord reflexes

101

C1 spinal nerve is sensory/motor?

MOTOR ONLY

102

Which nerve provides sensation to the face

CN V 1,2+3

103

What does dermatomal testing allow you to check the integrity of

spinal nerve
posterior root and rootlets

104

What is the named nerve cutaneous innervation of the neck
Hint: Little Goats Tread Softly

Lesser occipital
Greater auricular
Transverse cervical
Supraclavicular

105

what are the layers of the scalp
SCALP

skin
connective tissue
aponeurosis
loose connective tissue
pericranium

106

what is the blood supply of the scalp

ECA and ICA anastamoses

107

What is special about the pterion

it is a H shaped feature and it is the thinnest part of the skull
the middle meningeal artery runs underneath it

108

Which meningeal layer has sensory supply from the trigeminal nerve

dura mater

109

Which meningeal layer has arachnoid granulations and what are these

arachnoid mater
reabsorb CSF into dural venous sinuses

110

How many layers of dura mater are there in the brain

2 - cranial and periosteal

111

What lies inside the 2 layers of dura mater

the 2 layers separate at certain points where dural venous sinuses arise

112

what structures does the dura mater form

falx cerebri and tentorium cerebelli and diaphragm sellae

113

Where is the circle of willis found

within the subarachnoid space

114

Between which layers is the subarachnoid space found

arachnoid and pia mater

115

at which spinal level does the subarachnoid space close

S2

116

Where is the middle meningeal artery found

between bine and dura mater

117

Where does extra dural haemorrhage happen

between bone and dura mater

118

Where does subdural haemorrhage happen

between dura and arachnoid mater from torn cerebral veins

119

where does subarachnoid haemorrhage happen

in subarachnoid space