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Flashcards in Pharmacology Deck (59):
1

What class is carbamazepine

Na channel blocker

2

what is the indication of carbamazepine

Focal epileptic seizures
Trigeminal neuralgia

3

What are the side effects of carbamazepine

diplopia
ataxia
blood dycrasias
tertogenic
hyponatraemia

4

What drug class is phenytoin

Na channel blocker

5

What is the indication of phenytoin

Status epilepticus

6

What are the side effects of phenytoin

Gingival hyperplasia
peripheral neuropathy
nystagmus
ataxia, sedation
teratogenic
enzyme inducer
double vision
hirsutism

7

what class is Lamotrigine

Na channel blocker

8

What is the indication of lamotrigine

Generalised and focal seizures

9

What are the side effects of lamotrigine

rash and steven johnson syndrome - therefore takes a long time to build up dose
NOT teratogenic
double vision

10

Drug class of Na valproate

Na channel blocker with increased GABA concentration

11

Indications of Na valproate

General epileptic seizures

12

Side effects of Na valproate
(VALPROATE)

Teratogenic
Balding
Fattening
tremor
ataxia
liver dysfunction/toxicity
oedema
thrombocytopaenia
enchephalopathy

13

what are the 5 mechanisms of action of analgesia

reduce inflammation at site of injury
suppressing nerve conduction
suppressing synaptic transmission
activating descending inhibitory controls
targeting ion channels upregulated (GABA) in nerve damage

14

what is the difference between opiates and opioids

opiates = plant based drug eg morphine
opioid = any agent that acts upon opioid receptors eg morphine, endogenous substances like endorphins and enkephalins

15

where is periaqueductal grey found

midbrain

16

where is locus ceruleus found

pons

17

where is nucleus raphe magnus found

medulla

18

excitation of PAG causes profound analgesia/pain

analgesia

19

what substances are released from NRM

5HT and enkephalins

20

what substance is released from LC

NA

21

what happens when endogenous chemicals are released from the NRM and LC

they act on the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and inhibit nociceptive transmission

22

what type of receptor mediates opioid action

GPCR

23

what does GPCR signalling produce and what subunits are responsible

inhibition of voltage gated Ca channels to prevent release of neurotransmitter - Gi/o Bgamma subunit pre synaptically
opening of K channels to suppress excitation of post synaptic neuron - Gi/o Bgamma subunit
inhibition of adenylyl cyclase - Gi/o alpha subunit

24

what are the opioid receptos

mu
delta
kappa

25

adverse effects of opioids

addiction
N+V
respiratory depression
postural hypotension
constipation
confusion, euphoria, dysphoria, hallucinations, myoclonus

26

what receptor do opioid agonists mostly work on

mu receptors

27

how is morphine metabolised

liver

28

methods of morphine administration

PO, SC, IM, IV, epidural, intrathecal

29

what is heroin

diamorphine

30

diamorphine has a rapid/slow onset of action when administered IV

rapid

31

codeine can be given IV, true or false

FALSE
only given orally

32

when is pethidine used

in acute pain eg labour

33

pethidine is suitable for chronic pain, true or false

false
it has a short duration

34

buprenorphine is a partial/full agonist

partial

35

tramadol is a weak/strong mu agonist

weak

36

how is tramadol administered

PO

37

in which neurological condition is tramadol contraindicated

epilepsy

38

methadone has a long/short half life making it effective as in drug withdrawal

long half life

39

how strong is etorphine

VERY
only used in large animals

40

fentanyl is used in chronic/acute pain states

chronic

41

pethidine should not be used in conjunction with MAO inhibitors, true or false

true

42

what is a neurotoxic metabolite of pethidine

norpethidine

43

what is naloxone

complete opioid mu receptor antagonist

44

how is naloxone administered

IM, IV, SC

45

what is naltrexone

opioid receptor antagonist

46

how is naltrexone administered

PO

47

naltrexone has a shorter half life than naloxone, true or false

false
half life of naltrexone is longer than that of naloxone

48

NSAIDs act centrally/peripherally

both!

49

what adverse effects arise from
COX 1 inhibition
COX 2 inhibition

COX 1 - Peptic ulcer disease
COX 2 - nephrotoxicity

50

selective COX 2 inhibitors are anti/pro thrombotic

PRO thrombotic - lead to heart disease

51

subtypes of ACh receptors

nicotinic
muscarinic

52

where are nicotinic receptors found

skeletal muscle
parasympathetics
sympathetics
spinal cord
NMJ

53

where are muscarinic receptors found

target organ
peripheral tissues

54

nicotinic receptors are ionotropic/metabotropic and are slow/fast

ionotropic
fast

55

muscarinic receptors are ionotropic/metabotropic and are slow/fast

metabotropic
slow

56

GABA a mediates

Cl-

57

GABA b mediates

K+

58

side effects of topiramate

cognitive problems
weight loss

59

what is the difference between nociceptive and neuropathic pain

nociceptive - response to painful stimulus with an intact nervous system
neuropathic - inappropriate response caused by dysfunctional nervous system