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Flashcards in Energy Balance Deck (30)
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1

A nutrient that does not provide energy for the body is
a. carbohydrate.
b. protein.
c. vitamins.
d. fat.

vitamins.

2

Energy is lost from the body as
a. heat.
b. urine.
c. sweat.
d. fat.

heat.

Energy is lost from the body as heat when the internal energy cycle changes stored energy into body fuels, which the body uses for various functions. As the cycle continues water is excreted, carbon dioxide is exhaled, and heat is radiated, returning the end products to the external environment.

3

The unit of measurement used to refer to the amount of energy in food is the
a. watt.
b. kilogram.
c. milligram.
d. kilocalorie.

kilocalorie.

and is the amount of heat necessary to raise 1 kg of water 1° C.

4

The total number of kilocalories in a snack that contains 10 g carbohydrate, 2 g protein, and 5 g fat is _____ kcal.

93

ANS: C
10 g carbohydrate X 4 kcal/g = 40 kcal.
2 g protein X 4 kcal/g = 8 kcal.
5 g fat X 9 kcal/g = 45 kcal.
Total calories = 40 kcal + 8 kcal + 45 kcal = 93 kcal.

5

The external energy cycle includes
a. the moon.
b. growing plants.
c. crystals.
d. metabolism.

growing plants.

which transform energy from the sun into stored chemical energy.

6

After foods are eaten, they are converted into which of the following body fuels?
a. Amino acids and fatty acids
b. Fatty acids and glucose
c. Glucose and triglycerides
d. Glycogen and glucose

Fatty acids and glucose

Carbohydrates are the body’s main fuel, with fat assisting in this process.

7

Fever causes the metabolic rate to
a. increase.
b. decrease.
c. fluctuate.
d. stay the same.

increase.

Fever increases basal metabolic rate by approximately 7% for each 1° F rise in temperature.

8

The amount of energy the body needs to maintain life while at digestive, physical, and emotional rest is called the
a. basal metabolism.
b. indirect calorimetry.
c. respiratory quotient.
d. nitrogen balance.

basal metabolism.

Basal metabolism is measured when an individual is at complete digestive, physical, and emotional rest. It differs from resting energy expenditure, which is slightly higher because of the sum of all internal working activities of the body, some of which may not be at complete rest. In clinical practice resting energy expenditure is measured.

9

Metabolically active tissues in the body include
a. the heart, muscles, and intestine.
b. the brain, nerves, and hair.
c. the liver, kidney, and fingernails and toenails.
d. all body tissues.

the heart, muscles, and intestine.

The majority of energy is used by small but highly active tissues, including the liver, brain, heart, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract. These organs account for less than 5% of the total body weight but 60% to 75% of basal metabolic needs.

10

In clinical practice, basal or resting energy expenditure is estimated by using
a. blood tests.
b. calipers.
c. diet histories.
d. indirect calorimetry.

indirect calorimetry.

measures the amount of energy a person uses while at rest. A portable metabolic cart allows the person to breathe into an attached mouthpiece or ventilated hood system while lying in bed, and the normal exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide is measured. The metabolic rate can be determined from the rate of oxygen utilization.

11

The term for the effect of food intake on metabolic rate is
a. thermic effect of food.
b. resting metabolic rate.
c. total energy requirement.
d. indirect calorimetry.






thermic effect of food

Once food is eaten, it stimulates metabolism and requires extra energy for digestion, absorption, and transport of the nutrients to the cells. This stimulation is referred to as the thermic effect of food.

12

The sum of basal metabolism, energy expended in physical activity, and thermic effect of food is known as
a. metabolic rate.
b. energy intake.
c. basal energy needs.
d. total energy requirement.

total energy requirement

Demands that determine the body’s total energy requirement include resting energy expenditure, physical activities, and the thermic effect of food.

13

When energy intake exceeds energy expenditure, the result can be
a. anorexia.
b. malnutrition.
c. obesity.
d. hyperactivity.

obesity.

Excess intake without expenditure results in excess storage of nutrients in the body.


14

An activity that results in increased energy expenditure is
a. cleaning house.
b. balancing a checkbook.
c. experiencing emotional stress.
d. playing video games.


cleaning house.

Different kilocalorie expenditures (energy output) occur with different types of activities; those involving more energy expenditure per pound per hour carry a higher value than those requiring less energy expenditure per pound per hour. In this case, cleaning a house requires 1.36 kcal/lb/hour compared with balancing a checkbook, experiencing emotional stress, or playing video games.

15

The thermic effect of food refers to the fact that
a. all nutrients contain calories.
b. certain foods are more stimulating than others to the gastrointestinal tract.
c. the presence of food in the stomach starts the process of digestion.
d. the process of digestion, absorption, and metabolism of food requires energy

the process of digestion, absorption, and metabolism of food requires energy.

Once food is eaten, it stimulates metabolism and requires extra energy for digestion, absorption, and transport of the nutrients to the cells. This stimulation is referred to as the thermic effect of food.

16

The body's sources of stored energy include
a. glucose.
b. adipose tissue.
c. undigested food.
d. bone.

adipose tissue.


17

Basal metabolic rate is controlled by the hormone
a. cortisol.
b. growth hormone.
c. thyroxine.
d. insulin.

thyroxine.

18

The first source of stored energy to be used during a period of fasting is
a. amino acids.
b. glycogen.
c. adipose tissue.
d. glucose.

glycogen.

A 12- to 48-hour reserve of glycogen exists in liver and muscle and is quickly depleted if not replenished by daily food intake. Adipose tissue is used for energy after glycogen stores are used, followed by the breakdown of muscle mass in extreme cases of fasting or starvation.

19

Which of the following foods has the greatest caloric density?
a. Banana
b. Bread
c. Nuts
d. Milk

Nuts

Nuts are composed of a higher percentage of fat compared with bread, milk (which can range from 0% to 4% fat), or a banana, which has no fat.

20

Nutrient density means the
a. total weight of the nutrients in a food.
b. digestibility of the nutrients in a food.
c. concentration of energy in a given amount of food.
d. concentration of nutrients in a given amount of food.

concentration of nutrients in a given amount of food.

Nutrient density is the concentration of nutrients in a given amount of food. Fat or foods high in fat have the highest caloric density.

21

The liver and muscles store enough glycogen to last _____ hours.
a. 4 to 6
b. 6 to 24
c. 12 to 48
d. 24 to 72

12 to 48

22

In cases of extreme starvation, the energy substrate most likely to be used as a last resort would be
a. glycogen.
b. muscle mass.
c. adipose tissue.
d. amino acids.


muscle mass.

Energy stored as protein exists in limited amounts in muscle mass and is only used once glycogen and fat stores have been exhausted.


23

Fever increases basal metabolic rate approximately _____ for each _____ rise.
a. 1%, 1° F
b. 1%, 1° C
c. 1%, 7° F
d. 7%, 1° F

7%, 1° F

24

Energy expenditure is increased by
a. physical exercise.
b. mental work.
c. stress.
d. fatigue.

physical exercise.

25

Energy needs per pound of body weight
a. increase with age.
b. increase throughout childhood.
c. decrease with age.
d. are greater in women than in men.

decrease with age.

Energy needs per pound of body weight generally decrease during the aging process, with a gradual decline in basal metabolic rate and physical activity that decreases the total energy requirement.

26

A 65-year-old man’s energy intake should focus on meals
a. high in calories with nutrient dense foods.
b. low in calories and high in fiber and meat.
c. with a lower caloric density and increased nutrient density.
d. to maintain an approximate calorie level for middle age with increased nutrient density.



DIF: Hard REF: 88 MSC: Application

with a lower caloric density and increased nutrient density.

As the aging process continues, there is a gradual decline in basal metabolic rate and physical activity, resulting in a decrease in the total energy requirement. Food choices should reflect a decline in caloric density and greater emphasis on nutrient density.

27

Resting energy expenditure is
a. the same as basal energy expenditure.
b. slightly higher than basal energy expenditure.
c. slightly lower than basal energy expenditure.
d. more accurate for predicting energy needs than is basal energy expenditure.

slightly higher than basal energy expenditure.

28

Mr. Jones normally has a basal metabolic rate of 1500 kcal. He develops a fever of 100.6° F. His rate would now be approximately _____ kcal.
a. 1550
b. 1600
c. 1710
d. 1830


1710

Fever increases basal metabolic rate approximately 7% for each 1° F rise in temperature. In this case, Mr. Jones has a temperature above normal of 2° F (normal = 98.6° F). The resultant increase in calories is 1500 kcal  (0.07  2) = 210 additional kcal. 210 kcal + 1500 kcal = 1710 kcal (approximate new rate).

29

The person requiring the highest energy needs per unit of body weight is a
a. 15-year-old boy.
b. 45-year-old male accountant.
c. 75-year-old grandmother.
d. 7-year-old girl.

15-year-old boy.

During periods of growth, the growth hormone stimulates cell metabolism and raises basal metabolic rate by 15% to 20%.

30

The basal metabolic rate for a man who weighs 150 lb is _____ kcal.
a. 1500
b. 1575
c. 1636
d. 1686


1636

To calculate the basal metabolic rate (BMR), use the general formula:
Men = 1.0 kcal/kg/hour; 1 kg = 2.2 lb.
Convert weight (lb) to kg:
150 lb/2.2 lb/kg = 68 kg.
Multiply by formula:
BMR (kcal) = 1.0 kcal/kg/hour  68 kg  24 hours in a day = 1636 kcal.