Flashcards in Nutrition and Physical Fitness Deck (29)
The body’s carbohydrate energy reserve consists of
a. glucose and fructose.
b. sugar and starch.
c. glucose and glycogen.
d. glycogen and fatty acids
glucose and glycogen.
Glucose circulating in the blood and glycogen stores in the muscle cells and liver provide the body’s carbohydrate energy reserve.
A true statement (not a myth) is that
a. use of anabolic steroids can result in sterility.
b. extra protein builds bigger and stronger muscles.
c. vitamin supplements enable the athlete to use more energy.
d. drinking water during exercise causes cramps.
use of anabolic steroids can result in sterility.
The use of anabolic steroids can result in sterility along with other side effects, including premature closure of bone growth, stunting of normal skeletal development, liver injury, accelerated heart disease, and high blood pressure.
In prolonged exercise, nutrient levels fall too low to sustain the body's continued demands, which results in
a. muscle spasm.
b. muscular dystrophy.
c. muscle fatigue.
d. muscle cramps.
When nutrient reserves become depleted during continuous exercise, the body burns its fuel stores to meet increasing energy demands and requires replenishing. With prolonged exercise, nutrient levels fall too low to sustain the body’s continued demands. Fatigue follows, and exhaustion may result.
The source for short-term energy needs is
b. fatty acids.
d. amino acids.
The source for short-term energy needs is glycogen stored in muscle cells and the liver. For active persons, carbohydrates should contribute approximately 60% to 65% of the daily energy intake. Athletes competing in prolonged endurance events need more carbohydrate (e.g., 6 to 10 g/kg body weight).
The most appropriate pregame meal would be
a. pasta with cream sauce and apple juice.
b. cheese and fruit.
c. cereal with skim milk and orange juice.
d. a bagel with cream cheese and water.
cereal with skim milk and orange juice.
A pregame meal consisting of cereal with skim milk and orange juice would provide high complex carbohydrates, low fat, protein, and fiber and approximately 300 kca
Long-term energy needs are provided by _____ acids.
a. glucose and fatty
b. glycogen and fatty
c. amino acids and fatty
d. glycogen and amino
glucose and fatty
Long-term energy needs are provided by glucose and fatty acids. Fatty acids serve as a fuel source from stored fat tissue. However, the use of fat for energy declines as the exercise intensity increases above approximately 70% VO2 max, at which the point the body becomes more reliant on glucose utilization for immediate energy.
For the body to maintain a high level of steady exercise
a. there must be ample fat stores.
b. there must be sufficient oxygen available to the cells.
c. it must revert to an aerobic phase of metabolism.
d. energy expenditure must decrease.
there must be sufficient oxygen available to the cells.
Sufficient oxygen must be available to cells to maintain a high level of steady exercise. The aerobic capacity depends on two basic factors: (1) the fitness of the lungs, heart, and blood vessels and (2) body composition.
To prepare for an athletic event of high endurance, the proper glycogen-loading process is
a. intensive workouts and very high intake of complex carbohydrates.
b. intensive workouts two to three times a day and high intake of simple carbohydrates.
c. gradual tapering of workouts and increasing carbohydrate intake.
d. gradual tapering of workouts and decreasing carbohydrate intake.
gradual tapering of workouts and increasing carbohydrate intake.
The current practice of glycogen loading or carbohydrate loading has been modified from earlier, more stressful plans and takes place the week before the event. It involves a moderate, gradual tapering of exercise while total carbohydrate intake in the diet is increased.
Dehydration is not affected by
a. surrounding temperature.
b. body fat content.
c. level of fitness.
d. the pregame or pre-exercise state of hydration.
body fat content.
Dehydration can be a serious problem for athletes. Fluid needs depend on the intensity and duration of exercise, surrounding temperature, altitude, humidity, level of fitness, and the pregame state of hydration. It is not affected by body fat content.
The effect of exercise on blood lipoprotein levels is to
a. decrease low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) with no change in high-density lipoproteins (HDLs).
b. increase LDLs and decrease HDLs.
c. decrease HDLs and increase LDLs.
d. increase HDLs and decrease LDLs.
increase HDLs and decrease LDLs.
Exercise raises blood levels of HDLs because HDL carries surplus cholesterol from the tissues to the liver for breakdown and removal from the body. At the same time as surplus is removed, LDL levels decrease.
Aerobic capacity is related to
a. fitness of the heart and lungs.
b. hydration status.
c. hormone levels.
d. environmental temperature and humidity.
fitness of the heart and lungs.
The maximal attainable heart rate for a 30 year old is _____ beats/min.
Rationale: The maximal attainable heart rate is calculated as Pulse = 220 – Age. In this case 220 – 30 = 190.
Aerobic capacity is expressed in terms of amount of _____ of body weight per minute.
a. water absorbed per kilogram
b. oxygen consumed per kilogram
c. oxygen consumed per pound
d. carbon dioxide produced per kilogram
oxygen consumed per kilogram
It depends on the fitness of the lungs, heart, and blood vessels as well as body composition.
A lower proportion of lean body mass to fat is associated with _____ aerobic capacity.
c. no effect on
d. a gradual decline in
Body tissues that use more oxygen comprise the lean body mass, which is mainly muscle mass.
The percentage of daily calories from protein should be approximately
a. 5% to 30%.
b. 10% to 30%.
c. 15% to 30%.
d. 20% to 35%.
10% to 30%.
The percentage of daily calories from protein should be approximately 10% to 30% of total calories; the remainder of calories should be provided by carbohydrates and fat.
Excess protein intake is associated with an increase in production of
a. carbon dioxide.
c. nitrogen waste products.
nitrogen waste products.
Excess protein is associated with an increased production of nitrogen waste products because of the taxing load placed on the kidneys, which can contribute to dehydration.
The calories supplied by fat for a person requiring 2200 kcal should not exceed _____ kcal.
The percentage of total daily calories supplied from fat should not exceed 25% to 30%. Thus, 2200 kcal 0.30 = 660 kcal.
A major nutrient for energy support in exercise is
a. lean beef.
b. ice cream.
A major nutrient for energy support in exercise is carbohydrate, and oatmeal is a good source of carbohydrate.
The percentage of total daily calories from carbohydrate should be approximately
a. 10% to 35%.
b. 20% to 35%.
c. 35% to 55%.
d. 45% to 65%.
45% to 65%.
The percentage of total daily calories from carbohydrate should be approximately 45% to 65%. Fat should supply 25% to 30% of total calories, and the remainder should come from protein.
Vitamins and minerals are important in energy production because
a. they supply a necessary energy source.
b. they speed up energy production.
c. more are needed during exercise.
d. they are needed as cofactors in enzyme reactions.
they are needed as cofactors in enzyme reactions.
Vitamins and minerals are important in energy production as cofactors in enzyme reactions. Increased exercise does not require increased vitamin and minerals.
A meal that can be beneficial if eaten before athletic competition is
a. high in protein and fat.
b. high in protein, low in fat, high in carbohydrate.
c. low in fat, low in protein, high in complex carbohydrate.
d. low in fat, high in protein, high in simple carbohydrate.
low in fat, low in protein, high in complex carbohydrate.
A meal before athletic competition should be low fat, low protein, and high complex carbohydrate and consist of approximately 300 kcal.
The most beneficial rehydration fluid for most types of exercise is
a. diluted sugar water.
b. diluted salt solution.
c. electrolyte solution.
Athletes are recommended to drink 6 to 12 oz of fluid every 15 to 20 minutes during athletic events.
The genetic set point for body fat level is _____ exercise.
a. increased by regular
b. decreased by regular
c. unaffected by
d. affected only by daily
decreased by regular
Exercise is beneficial in weight management because it helps regulate appetite, increases the basal metabolic rate, and reduces the genetic fat deposit set point level.
Exercise is beneficial to persons with diabetes because it
a. stimulates insulin secretion.
b. increases the number of insulin receptor sites on cell membranes.
c. reduces the need for glucose.
d. increases the number of cells in the body.
increases the number of insulin receptor sites on cell membranes.
The feeling of well-being after a vigorous workout may be from production of
Exercise stimulates the production of brain opiates, substances called endorphins. These natural chemicals decrease pain and improve mood, which may include an exhilarating kind of “high.”
The amount of time between a light meal and a competitive event should be
a. 30 to 60 minutes.
b. 1 to 2 hours.
c. 2 to 3 hours.
d. 3 to 4 hours.
3 to 4 hours.
should elapse between a light meal and a competitive event. This schedule gives the body time to digest, absorb, and transform the meal into stored glycogen.
Some fat in the diet is required to provide
a. linoleic and linolenic acids.
b. sufficient energy for all activities.
c. cholesterol for endogenous needs, such as steroid hormone production.
d. adequate body fat store.
linoleic and linolenic acids
Some fat in the diet is needed to provide essential fats for the body to function properly.
A mineral that female and adolescent athletes might require in increased amounts is