Flashcards in Nutrition for Adults: The Early, Middle, and Later Years Deck (30)
Young adults are increasingly
The age range of 20 to 44 years is called _____ adulthood.
b. young and middle
Physical maturity and independence are apparent with the ability to form new relationships, adopt new roles, and make many more choices regarding lifestyle.
The focus of health care for middle adults is turning to
a. homeopathic medicine.
b. health promotion and reduction of disease.
c. treatment of disease.
d. accident prevention.
health promotion and reduction of disease.
Chronic disease most often begins to appear during
b. early adulthood.
c. middle adulthood.
d. older adulthood.
Biologic processes associated with aging may cause
a. an increased metabolic rate.
b. increased anxiety.
c. an increased ratio of adipose to muscle tissue.
d. increased kidney function.
an increased ratio of adipose to muscle tissue.
As the aging process occurs, skeletal muscle mass is reduced, causing a loss of approximately 40% by age 70 years. Skeletal muscle loss is not mandatory; it can be lessened with exercise.
Prescription and over-the-counter drugs can affect nutritional status because they
a. may contain toxins.
b. often result in addiction.
c. usually contain nutrients.
d. may affect appetite or absorption of nutrients.
may affect appetite or absorption of nutrients.
because many drug-nutrient interactions can occur and affect appetite or the absorption of nutrients.
Energy requirements decrease as adults age because
a. older adults have less stress than younger adults.
b. younger adults are still growing; older adults are not.
c. the height of adults decreases with age.
d. the number of functioning body cells decreases with age.
the number of functioning body cells decreases with age.
Each decade basal energy needs decrease
a. 0.5% to 1%.
b. 1% to 2%.
c. 2% to 4%.
d. 5% to 8%.
1% to 2%.
Basal metabolic rate declines an average of 1% to 2% per decade of life, with a more rapid decline occurring at approximately age 40 years for men and age 50 years for women.
If an older adult is losing weight, his or her caloric intake is
a. less than energy needs.
b. approximately the same as energy needs.
c. greater than energy needs.
d. poorly distributed throughout the day.
less than energy needs
The mean energy expenditure for the older adult ranges from approximately 2000 to 2500 kcal/day depending on age, sex, activity, and any stressors present.
Adults tend to have the longest life span if they
a. are slightly underweight.
b. are close to their ideal body weight.
c. are slightly overweight.
d. maintain a constant weight.
are slightly overweight.
The percentage of energy intake that should be supplied as carbohydrate for older adults is
a. 20% to 25%.
b. 30% to 35%.
c. 45% to 65%.
d. 65% to 75%.
45% to 65%.
The older adult's diet should include adequate carbohydrates to
a. provide a substrate for vitamins and minerals.
b. support normal brain function.
c. provide building material for muscle mass.
d. maintain blood glucose level.
support normal brain function.
The National Academy of Sciences has determined that an absolute minimum of 130 g/day of carbohydrates is necessary to maintain normal brain function for children and adults.
It may be advisable for an older adult to take a vitamin or mineral supplement
c. if he or she has been ill.
d. if he or she is under stress.
if he or she has been ill.
This is especially true for the malnutrition often seen in homebound elderly persons. The Dietary Reference Intake values specify that individuals older than 50 years should consume vitamin B12 in supplemental form or through fortified foods because of the high risk of deficiency resulting from decreased gastric acidity.
Two minerals that often are low in diets of the elderly are
a. zinc and iron.
b. calcium and iron.
c. sodium and potassium.
d. calcium and potassium.
calcium and iron
because of less ingestion of calcium-rich foods, loss of appetite, lack of adequate body fat, less outdoor physical activity, and decreased capacity of the skin to produce vitamin D with exposure to light. A poor diet also contributes to lack of sufficient iron-containing foods, leading to anemia in the older person.
Physiologic problems of older adults include
b. increased salivary secretions.
c. decreased thirst and taste sensations.
d. increased muscle tone.
decreased thirst and taste sensations.
As a person ages, a decrease in the thirst mechanism occurs that can lead to inadequate fluid intake and resultant dehydration. The older adult also experiences a decrease in taste, smell, and vision, which affects food intake.
An older adult is most likely to have inadequate nutrient intake if he or she lives
a. in a retirement community.
b. with a spouse.
d. with family.
The Older Americans Act provides home-delivered meals for those who
a. cannot afford food.
b. prefer not to leave home.
c. are isolated.
d. are malnourished.
The Older Americans Act Title III provides
a. congregate and home-delivered meals.
b. meals served at shelters and community centers.
c. meals served at care facilities and hospices.
d. meals for homeless older adults.
congregate and home-delivered meals.
This program is under the Administration on Aging of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Congregate meals are most often served at a
b. senior citizens center.
c. nursing home.
senior citizens center.
In these settings older adults can gather for a hot noon meal and have access to both good food and social support.
The congregate meal for seniors is
b. the noon meal.
c. the evening meal.
d. decided by the center.
the noon meal.
Factors that contribute to malnutrition in older adults include
a. type 2 diabetes and heart disease.
b. loss of teeth or poorly fitting dentures.
c. a weight 10% above desirable standards.
d. increased energy and nutrient needs.
loss of teeth or poorly fitting dentures.
Many factors contribute to malnutrition in the elderly, including inadequate intake as a result of ill-fitting dentures or loss of teeth that prevents adequate intake of essential nutrients.
Protein needs of an older adult are influenced by the adequacy of _____ intake.
is essential in the older adult to prevent calories from protein intake being used for energy needs.
Dehydration is more common in older adults than in younger adults because
a. the kidneys excrete too much water.
b. the thirst mechanism diminishes.
c. intracellular versus extracellular water balance is disturbed.
d. more water needs to be ingested to maintain hydration.
the thirst mechanism diminishes.
Factors that influence the nutrition needs of young adults include
c. personality type.
d. physical activity.
Older adults may be encouraged not to restrict their fat intake because
a. adequate fat intake helps ensure adequate vitamin intake.
b. older adults absorb fat more easily than carbohydrate.
c. some higher fat foods may provide needed kilocalories.
d. high-fat foods are easier to prepare than low-fat foods.
some higher fat foods may provide needed kilocalories.
The average young adult male requires more energy than the average young adult female because of a
a. larger body size.
b. greater number of adipose cells.
c. less-efficient metabolism.
d. greater physical activity level.
larger body size.
The percentage of adult females in the United States who regularly use vitamin supplements is approximately
Examples of foods high in nutrients that help prevent osteoporosis are
a. cottage cheese and oranges.
b. yogurt and canned salmon.
c. oatmeal and green leafy vegetables.
d. broccoli and liver.
yogurt and canned salmon.
Older adults need more vitamin D than younger adults because they
a. are less efficient at making their own.
b. are in a state of positive calcium balance.
c. excrete large amounts in their urine.
d. do not eat enough fat to absorb the vitamin efficiently.
are less efficient at making their own.