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The functions of fat in the body include

insulation to vital organs, temperature regulation, and formation of cell membrane structure.

In the body, fat provides necessary insulation to vital organs and under the skin to regulate body temperature and is a component of cell membrane structure.


The number of kilocalories from fat in a meal that contains 35 g fat is _____.


Fat contains 9 kcal/g, so 35 g  9 kcal/g = 315 kcal.


The recommended percentage of dietary energy intake from fat for an adult is no more than

20% to 35%.


An element not found in triglycerides is


Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen make up fat, whereas nitrogen is found as part of the protein molecule.


Triglycerides are composed of _____ acids.

glycerol and fatty

A triglyceride is composed of three fatty acids attached to a glycerol base.


The chemical feature that distinguishes a saturated fatty acid from an unsaturated fatty acid is the

amount of hydrogen it contains.

Fatty acids are saturated or unsaturated depending on whether they are filled with hydrogen. A fatty acid that is not completely filled with all the hydrogen it can hold is unsaturated; the structure of a saturated fatty acid is completely filled with all the hydrogen bonds it can hold.


An example of a substance that contains a saturated fatty acid is

beef steak.

Saturated fats are mostly found in animal products. Unsaturated and monounsaturated fats are mostly derived from plant sources. However, tropical oils such as coconut and palm oils are saturated.


Of the following oils, the one that is least saturated is


Unsaturated fats listed in order of degree of unsaturation are safflower, corn, cottonseed, and soybean.


Most fatty acids in plant foods are



An essential fatty acid is one that

the body cannot manufacture for itself.

An essential fatty acid is one that is essential for the body; its absence will create a specific deficiency. The body cannot manufacture essential fatty acids and must obtain them from the diet.


The body needs linoleic acid for

blood clotting.

The body needs linoleic acid for functions related to tissue strength, cholesterol metabolism, muscle tone, blood clotting, and heart action.


The best food choice to provide linolenic acid is


Linolenic acid is primarily found in milk, soybeans, and flaxseed oil. Lard is not a healthy choice for an optimal diet.


An example of a food that contains hidden fats is

skinless chicken.

Some dietary fats are less visible. Even when all the visible fat has been removed from meat, approximately 6% of the total fat that surrounds the muscle fibers remains.


The process of adding hydrogen to fatty acids is called


Hydrogenation is the process of introducing hydrogen into the fat molecule.


A change brought about as the result of hydrogenation is

liquid fats become solids.

liquid fats such as vegetable oil are made into solids such as margarine and shortening in this manner.


An example of a food that does not contain cholesterol is


Cholesterol is a substance that naturally occurs in all animal foods.


Cholesterol is synthesized by the body mainly in the


Endogenous cholesterol is synthesized in many body tissues, particularly the liver. Small amounts are synthesized in the adrenal cortex, skin, intestines, testes, and ovaries.


After a dietary assessment is completed, it revealed that a client consumes 50% of daily calories from fat. This amount of fat places the client at risk for

obesity, elevated blood fats, and diabetes.

According to the Dietary Reference Intakes, no more than 20% to 35% of total calories should come from fat. Excess fat intakes places a person at risk for health problems, including obesity, elevated blood fats, and diabetes.


Factors that increase the risk of heart disease include

increased stress and obesity.

Heart disease is a leading cause of death in developed countries. Various risk
factors are associated with heart disease, including excess dietary fat, especially saturated fat and cholesterol, along with obesity, diabetes, elevated blood fats, and elevated blood pressure. Additional lifestyle factors include smoking, stress, and lack of exercise.


The substances that serve as the major vehicles for fat transport in the bloodstream are


In the intestine, monoglycerides and fatty acids are reformed into triglycerides, which are then packaged into a lipoprotein called chylomicron. Chylomicrons are made of triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and proteins, which allow them to enter the circulation.


After eating a dinner of fried chicken, gravy, and mashed potatoes, chemical digestion of the fat component primarily takes place in the

small intestine.

The largest part of chemical digestion occurs in the small intestine with several enzymes, including gastric lipase tributyrinase, bile salts from the gallbladder (which serve as an emulsifier), and pancreatic lipase, which breaks down triglycerides to diglycerides and monoglycerides.


The hormone responsible for stimulating the gallbladder to contract and release bile into the small intestine is


release is stimulated when fat enters the duodenum. Cholecystokinin then causes the gallbladder to contract.


End products of fat digestion do not include


The end products of fat digestion include fatty acids, glycerol, and diglycerides. Monosaccharides are part of carbohydrate digestion.


An important function of bile is to

break fat into smaller particles.

Bile functions as an emulsifier rather than an enzyme. Bile assists in the preparation of fat for chemical digestion by its specific enzymes. This preparation accomplishes two tasks: it (1) breaks down fat into small particles and (2) lowers the surface tension of the dispersed and suspended fat particles.


The type of fat associated with a high risk of atherosclerosis is


Lard is the most saturated fat. An excess of cholesterol and saturated from animal food sources in the diet is associated with atherosclerosis.


Fat substitutes are used in food products to

improve the flavor and physical texture of low-fat foods.

Fat substitutes, such as Simplesse and Olestra, provide improved flavor and physical texture to low-fat foods and help reduce total dietary fat.


The greatest number of kilocalories is provided by

30 g fat.

30 g of fat provides the most kilocalories. Fat provides 9 kcal/g; both carbohydrates and proteins provide 4 kcal/g.


A food relatively high in saturated fat is


Margarine is the fat with the most saturation in this case. It is a semisolid with more hydrogen-filled spaces compared with corn, peanut, or avocado oil.

DIF: Easy REF: 32 MSC: Application


One advantage of fat in the diet is that it

adds taste and flavor to food.

Fat in the diet provides taste and flavor to food along with an energy source and essential fats and vitamins.


In a diet that contains 50 g fat and a total of 1500 kcal, the proportion of total kilocalories from fat is


Because fat contains 9 kcal/g, then 50 g  9 kcal/g = 450 kcal. 450 kcal/1500 total kcal = 0.30, or 30%.