Nutrition in Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Nutrition in Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence Deck (30)
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At birth, the reflexes an infant has are
a. rooting, biting, and swallowing.
b. sucking, munching, and swallowing.
c. rooting, sucking, and swallowing.
d. grasping, sucking, and gagging.

rooting, sucking, and swallowing.


Foods for infants should be prepared without added
a. sugar and salt.
b. salt and herbs.
c. wheat and sugar.
d. milk and wheat.

sugar and salt.

Foods for infants are prepared without added sugar and salt. Foods should not be overseasoned to let tastes develop gradually.


The phase that shows the most erratic growth is
a. infancy.
b. childhood.
c. adolescence.
d. adulthood.


physical growth and appetite occur in spurts. Mental capacities are developing and the environment is expanding. Their experiences vary, and children form life patterns in attitudes and basic eating habits. The generally slow and irregular growth rate continues in the early school years, and body changes occur gradually.


During a check-up at the clinic, a child’s growth is evaluated by using
a. fitness testing.
b. clinical observation.
c. food records.
d. growth charts.

growth charts.

are an assessment tool for measuring normal growth patterns in infants, children, and adolescents. These charts are based on large numbers of well-nourished children representing the national population.


A good nutrient source of energy for children is
a. chicken.
b. cereal with added sugar.
c. whole wheat crackers.
d. vitamin supplement.

whole wheat crackers.

The main energy source for children is carbohydrates, which also act as a protein-sparer so that the protein vital for building tissue during childhood growth is not diverted for energy needs.


In the growing years, the greatest need for calories is for
a. tissue growth.
b. physical activities.
c. specific dynamic effect.
d. basal metabolic needs.

basal metabolic needs.

Basal metabolism accounts for 50% of total daily caloric intake during childhood.


An example of a food that provides building material for tissue growth is
a. bread.
b. cheese.
c. broccoli.
d. an orange.


Protein is the fundamental tissue-building substance of the body. Cheese is a food high in protein.


An 8-lb 1-month-old infant requires an approximate daily fluid requirement of _____ mL.
a. 152
b. 277
c. 436
d. 556

In this case, a 1-month-old requires approximately 120 mL/kg of daily fluid = 8 lb = 3.6 kg (8/2.2 kg/lb)  120 ml/kg = 436 mL.


Compared with adults, infants and young children have more body fluid
a. outside the cells.
b. inside the cells.
c. in the bloodstream.
d. in intestinal secretions.

outside the cells.

A larger proportion of an infant and child’s total body water is outside the cells and more easily available for loss, potentially resulting in dehydration.


An important function of calcium for the growing child is
a. vision development.
b. prevention of anemia.
c. mental development.
d. bone and tooth development.

bone and tooth development.


An adequate source of iron for a breastfed infant at 6 months of age is
a. cow's milk.
b. goat's milk.
c. enriched rice cereal.
d. applesauce.

enriched rice cereal.

the infant’s nutritional needs for iron exceed what is provided exclusively by breast milk, and the addition of solid foods and enriched cereals at approximately 6 months of age helps supply additional iron.


Hypervitaminosis of vitamins A or D is most likely to occur because of
a. excessive milk intake.
b. overexposure to the sun.
c. overuse of vitamin supplements.
d. inadequate intake of vegetables and fruits.

overuse of vitamin supplements

Excess intake may occur over prolonged periods as a result of ignorance, carelessness, or misunderstanding.


It is important for the infant to develop a sense of
a. trust.
b. autonomy.
c. identity.
d. initiative


to feel secure with feeding, especially if breastfed. Food is intimately related at each stage of development because physical growth and psychological development go hand in hand.


A full-term infant is an infant born
a. at 30 weeks' gestation.
b. at 2 kg (5 lb) or less.
c. at approximately 40 weeks' gestation.
d. small for gestational age.

at approximately 40 weeks' gestation.


The most suitable first solid food for infants is
a. yogurt.
b. pureed bananas.
c. pureed squash.
d. infant rice cereal.

infant rice cereal.

usually is the most suitable first solid food for infants because foods containing wheat have a higher risk of allergy-related reactions.


The ideal first food for newborns is
a. infant formula.
b. cow's milk.
c. breast milk.
d. rice cereal.

breast milk.

because its nutrients are uniquely adapted to meet the growth needs of the infant in forms more easily digested, absorbed, and used.


The first milk secreted by a new mother is called
a. lactation.
b. colostomy.
c. colostrum.
d. prolactin.


is a thin, yellow fluid first secreted by the mammary gland a few days after childbirth, preceding the mature breast milk.


The approximate age for adding solid food to an infant’s diet is _____ months.
a. 4
b. 6
c. 8
d. 12


Because the infant’s system cannot use solid foods well before 6 months, they are not yet needed.


Babies should not be put to sleep with a bottle of formula because
a. infants should not hold their own bottles.
b. this could lead to early tooth decay.
c. infants should not suck while asleep.
d. susceptibility to diarrhea is increased.

this could lead to early tooth decay.


Cow's milk is not recommended for infants during the early months because it
a. is not nutritionally adequate.
b. does not contain enough protein.
c. contains too much fat and is not easily digested.
d. has a high solute load and may cause gastrointestinal bleeding.

has a high solute load and may cause gastrointestinal bleeding.

because its concentration may cause gastrointestinal bleeding and it provides too heavy a load of solutes for the infant’s renal system.


Young children should be offered
a. large portions so they can decide how much to eat.
b. small portions so they can ask for more if hungry.
c. larger portions of food as they grow older.
d. the same amount of food each day.

small portions so they can ask for more if hungry.


Failure to thrive may be caused by
a. early sitting and crawling.
b. sleeping with a bottle.
c. overuse of vitamin supplements.
d. overdilution of formula.

over dilution of formula.

Failure to thrive is used to describe infants, children, or adolescents who fail to grow and develop normally. It commonly affects children aged 1 to 5 years of both sexes.


Food intake may decrease after the first year of life and caloric need is not as great because
a. the child is using baby fat stores.
b. muscle development is occurring.
c. the child is still relatively inactive.
d. the growth rate slows down.

the growth rate slows down.


During the school-age years, the rate of growth
a. increases rapidly.
b. is slow and irregular.
c. increases slowly.
d. is similar to that during the preschool years.

is slow and irregular

with body changes occurring gradually. In the year or two before adolescence, in particular, reserves are being laid for the rapid growth period just ahead.


The final growth spurt of childhood occurs
a. at the end of the school-age period.
b. with the onset of puberty.
c. at the end of adolescence.
d. during young adulthood.

with the onset of puberty.

This rapid growth is evident in increasing body size and development of sex characteristics in response to hormonal influences.


Eating disorders are common in adolescent girls because
a. their appetites are low.
b. adolescents are busy and may miss meals.
c. society and peers value thinness.
d. they tend to be overzealous in following low-fat eating patterns.

society and peers value thinness.


Which of the following is a valid reason for breastfeeding rather than bottle feeding?
a. Breastfeeding promotes rapid maternal weight loss.
b. Breast milk is higher in iron than infant formula.
c. Breastfeeding helps protect infants against infection.
d. Breastfeeding is an effective contraceptive.

Breastfeeding helps protect infants against infection.


Finger foods can be given to infants between ages _____ months.
a. 6 and 8
b. 7 and 9
c. 9 and 12
d. 12 and 18

6 and 8

when they begin to develop a pincer grasp to pick up small items between the thumb and forefinger and put them in the mouth.


Parents who use natural foods should be advised to
a. add honey to water if the infant is constipated.
b. avoid giving honey to a child younger than 1 year.
c. add honey to infant foods as a good source of energy.
d. use only unprocessed honey.

avoid giving honey to a child younger than 1 year.

because botulism spores have been reported in honey and the immune capacity of the young infant cannot resist this infection.


Effective strategies for weight management in children include
a. regular physical activity.
b. counting calorie intake.
c. eliminating snacks.
d. eliminating fried foods.

regular physical activity

Regular physical activity is a key strategy in maintaining a healthy weight in children along with varied and healthy food choices.