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Flashcards in Gastrointestinal and Accessory Organ Problems Deck (37)
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1

The lower esophageal sphincter muscle controls entry of food into the
a. esophagus.
b. stomach.
c. small intestine.
d. rectum.

c. small intestine.

Defects in this sphincter may come from changes in the smooth muscle itself or from the nerve-muscle hormone control of peristalsis.

2

The term used to describe difficulty in swallowing is
a. pyrosis.
b. polydipsia.
c. dysphagia.
d. dyspepsia.

c. dysphagia.

3

Many people who have gastroesophageal reflux are
a. underweight.
b. obese.
c. male.
d. children.

b. obese.

Constant regurgitation of acid gastric contents into the lower part of the esophagus creates constant irritation and inflammation to the tissue and can be caused by obesity, pregnancy, pernicious vomiting, or nasogastric tubes.

4

An eroded mucosal area in the central portion of the gastrointestinal tract describes a
a. hiatal hernia.
b. diverticulum.
c. peptic ulcer.
d. Crohn's lesion.

c. peptic ulcer.

is an eroded mucosal area in the central portion of the gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms usually include increased gastric muscle tone and painful contractions when the stomach is empty. Hemorrhage usually is one of the first signs.

5

A food that should be omitted from the diet of a patient with peptic ulcer disease is
a. black pepper.
b. apple juice.
c. milk.
d. popcorn.

a. black pepper.

6

Most ulcers occur in the
a. esophagus.
b. stomach.
c. duodenum.
d. ileum.

b. stomach.

Symptoms usually include increased gastric muscle tone and painful contractions when the stomach is empty. Hemorrhage usually is one of the first signs.

7

Which of the following describes general nutrition guidelines for a patient with a peptic ulcer?
a. General, well-balanced diet as tolerated
b. High-protein, low-fiber diet with no seasonings
c. High-protein diet and regularly scheduled meals
d. Low-fiber diet with no seasonings and no milk or cream

a. General, well-balanced diet as tolerated

8

Small outpouchings in the gastrointestinal tract are called
a. hernias.
b. lesions.
c. diverticula.
d. epiploic appendages.

c. diverticula.

9

Signs of dysphagia in nursing home residents include
a. vomiting.
b. dry mouth.
c. abdominal pain.
d. recurring pneumonia.

d. recurring pneumonia.

Dysphagia can cause persons to aspirate food particles that may not be evident in coughing or choking episodes. Aspiration of food contents into the lung causes pneumonia and other serious problems.

10

Foods that appear to reduce irritable bowel syndrome include _____ foods.
a. soft
b. low-fiber
c. bland
d. high-fiber

d. high-fiber

may help reduce irritable bowel syndrome. Small-volume bowel dysfunction is a condition that varies from constipation or diarrhea to a combination of both and is characterized by excess gas formation with increased distention and bloating. Fiber can help regulate bowel function.

11

The characteristic symptoms of celiac disease are
a. vomiting and diarrhea.
b. diarrhea and steatorrhea.
c. abdominal pain and constipation.
d. chronic, bloody diarrhea.

b. diarrhea and steatorrhea.

Hypersensitivity to the protein gluten in certain grains causes mucosal surface damage to the intestine. The villi are malformed, which reduces the absorbing surface by as much as 95%.

12

Hepatitis is usually the result of
a. viral infection or alcohol or drug abuse.
b. bacterial or viral infection.
c. excessive fat and protein intake.
d. chronic malnutrition.

a. viral infection or alcohol or drug abuse.

13

Viral hepatitis can be contracted through
a. ingestion of contaminated food or water.
b. airborne viruses from coughing and sneezing.
c. physical contact with an infected person.
d. alcohol abuse.

a. ingestion of contaminated food or water.

Hepatitis is an inflammatory condition caused by viruses, alcohol, drugs, or toxins. Viral hepatitis can be contracted through contaminated food or water.

14

The treatment of hepatitis includes
a. rest and optimal nutrition.
b. antibiotics and optimal nutrition.
c. fluid restriction and rest.
d. diuretics and optimal nutrition.

a. rest and optimal nutrition.

Hepatitis is treated by rest and optimal nutrition. A high-carbohydrate, moderate-fat, high-energy, and high-protein diet is necessary for treatment of hepatitis.

15

Nutrition therapy for hepatitis includes a diet that is _____ in protein, _____ in carbohydrate, and _____ in fat.
a. high, high, high
b. low, high, low
c. low, low, high
d. high, high, moderate

d. high, high, moderate

Optimal nutrition should consist of a diet that is high in protein, high in carbohydrate, and moderate in fat. The amount of carbohydrate depends on individual needs and condition. Approximately 25% to 40% of the diet should come from fat; as the disease progresses, more energy is supplied from this nutrient. Protein is essential for building new cells and tissues of the liver.

16

A major difficulty in treating hepatitis is that
a. the person must stay in isolation for a long time.
b. the person can have only a clear liquid diet.
c. the person usually has a poor appetite.
d. typically only one kind of antibiotic will cure it.

c. the person usually has a poor appetite.

Symptoms of hepatitis include anorexia, jaundice, and underlying malnutrition. The person usually has a poor appetite associated with these symptoms.

17

If the diverticula of the intestine become inflamed, the condition is called
a. diverticulosis.
b. diverticulitis.
c. diarrhea.
d. celiac disease.

b. diverticulitis.

develops when the small pouches or pockets in muscular mucosal lining of the small intestine become infected. The infected area is painful.

18

A cause of diarrhea is
a. drinking too much liquid with a meal.
b. lactose intolerance.
c. excessive intake of protein.
d. swallowing air with food digestion.

b. lactose intolerance.

in people who lack the digestive enzyme lactase is a cause of diarrhea. Lactase deficiency causes malabsorption, which results in diarrhea.

19

Dietary changes that help reduce the incidence of constipation include
a. use of laxatives.
b. decreased fiber intake.
c. increased fluid intake.
d. decreased cheese intake.

c. increased fluid intake.

20

Treatment for diverticulosis includes a diet that is
a. bland.
b. low in fiber.
c. high in fiber.
d. full liquid.

c. high in fiber.

void of foods that may cause gas or intolerance (such as lactose), and low in fat. Large amounts of food in one meal can create discomfort from gastric distention and gas. Air-swallowing habits such as eating rapidly and in large amounts, excessive fluid intake (especially of carbonated beverages), and gum chewing should be decreased.

21

The primary objective of treatment of hepatic encephalopathy is to
a. encourage the patient to eat.
b. feed the patient parenterally to give the liver a rest.
c. remove sources of excess ammonia.
d. encourage the patient to exercise and maintain mental functions.

c. remove sources of excess ammonia.

. One of the main functions of the brain is to remove ammonia and therefore nitrogen from the blood by converting it to urea for urinary excretion. When cirrhosis continues and fibrous scar tissue replaces more and more functional liver tissue, the blood can no longer circulate normally through the liver. Therefore, other vessels develop around the scar tissue, bypass the liver, and proceed to the brain, producing ammonia intoxication.

22

Bile is produced by the
a. gallbladder.
b. pancreas.
c. liver.
d. intestine.

c. liver.

The basic function of the gallbladder is to concentrate and store bile, then release the concentrated bile into the small intestine when fat is present.

23

The most important function of the gallbladder is to
a. produce bile.
b. synthesize cholesterol.
c. release lipase enzymes.
d. concentrate and store bile.

d. concentrate and store bile.

then release the concentrated bile into the small intestine when fat is present.

24

The presence of gallstones in the gallbladder is called
a. cholecystitis.
b. cholelithiasis.
c. cholecystectomy.
d. cholecystokinin.

b. cholelithiasis.

refers to the presence of gallstones in the gallbladder. When continued infection alters the solubility of the bile ingredients, cholesterol separates out and forms gallstones.

25

A clinical symptom of gallbladder inflammation or gallstones is
a. pain and distention after eating.
b. jaundice.
c. anorexia.
d. weakness and apathy.

a. pain and distention after eating.

26

Sodium often is restricted in the patient with cirrhosis to control
a. kidney failure.
b. heart function.
c. neurologic function.
d. fluid retention.

d. fluid retention.

Sodium often is restricted to 500 to 1000 mg/day with cirrhosis to help reduce fluid retention (ascites).

27

Nutritional therapy for the patient with cirrhosis includes a diet that is
a. low in sodium, high in protein, and low in carbohydrates.
b. soft textured and high in energy.
c. high in protein, high in carbohydrates, and high in fat.
d. low in sodium, soft textured, and high in carbohydrates.

d. low in sodium, soft textured, and high in carbohydrates.

Sodium is often restricted to 500 to 1000 mg/day with cirrhosis to help reduce fluid retention (ascites). Soft texture is necessary in the presence of esophageal varices to help prevent the danger of vessel rupture and hemorrhage. Kilocalories, carbohydrates, and vitamins, especially the B-complex vitamins thiamin and folate, are important for healing.

28

The major nutrition problem related to development of ascites is
a. protein deficiency.
b. excessive fat intake.
c. deficiency of digestive enzymes.
d. excessive sodium intake.

a. protein deficiency.

is a nutrition problem related to the development of ascites. Low plasma protein levels eventually lead to ascites, or abdominal fluid accumulation.

29

Pathologic changes in the liver caused by cirrhosis include
a. fatty infiltration.
b. fibrous tissue formation.
c. gallstone formation.
d. edema and swelling

a. fatty infiltration.

Protein in the diet combines with fats (lipoproteins) to remove them, preventing damage from fatty infiltration in the liver.

30

Nutrition therapy for gallbladder disorders includes
a. reducing cholesterol intake.
b. eliminating gas-forming foods.
c. lowering fat intake.
d. increasing caloric intake.

c. lowering fat intake.

A low-fat intake may help avoid pain and discomfort because the presence of fat entering the small intestine stimulates the contraction of the gallbladder.