Nutrition during Pregnancy and Lactation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Nutrition during Pregnancy and Lactation Deck (30)
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Nutritional needs during pregnancy are affected by
a. the mother's age.
b. the sex of the infant.
c. the mother's food cravings.
d. whether the mother works

the mother's age.


A pregnant woman's energy needs must be met in order to
a. spare vitamins.
b. spare adipose stores.
c. prevent fetal deformity.
d. spare protein.

spare protein.

Adequate energy is necessary to spare protein. If inadequate kilocalories from energy are provided, then protein will be used for energy. Protein increase is approximately 50% more than the average adult requirement.


Daily kilocalorie needs during the second trimester exceed normal requirements by approximately _____ kcal.
a. 100
b. 200
c. 340
d. 500


The national standard recommends an increase of 340 kcal/day during the second trimester and approximately 450 kcal/day during the third trimester of pregnancy.


The amount of extra protein required by pregnant versus nonpregnant women is approximately _____ g/day.
a. 10
b. 15
c. 25
d. 30


Protein intake should increase 25 g/day during pregnancy on top of nonpregnancy needs. This increase is approximately 50% more than the average adult requirements.


Increased protein is necessary in pregnancy for
a. preventing gestational diabetes.
b. sparing carbohydrates for energy needs.
c. growing maternal tissues.
d. preventing pregnancy-induced hypertension.

growing maternal tissues.


Three minerals that should be significantly increased during pregnancy are
a. calcium, iron, and iodine.
b. calcium, phosphorus, and zinc.
c. iron, zinc, and iodine.
d. calcium, sodium, and potassium.

calcium, iron, and iodine.

Calcium is essential for fetal development of bones and teeth as well as for the mother’s own body needs.
Iron is essential for the increased hemoglobin synthesis required for the greater maternal blood volume as well as for the baby’s necessary prenatal storage of iron.
Adequate iodine intake is essential for producing more thyroxine needed in greater amounts to control the increased basal metabolic rate during pregnancy.


The recommended daily iron intake during pregnancy is _____ mg.
a. 12
b. 18
c. 27
d. 35


The recommended iron intake is 27 mg/day, which is significantly more than a woman’s normal need of 18 mg/day.


Iron needs increase during pregnancy because of
a. maternal constipation.
b. increased maternal blood volume.
c. increased maternal metabolic rate.
d. poor iron absorption during pregnancy.

increased maternal blood volume.


Adequate folate in the periconceptional period helps prevent
a. cretinism.
b. mental retardation.
c. neural tube defects.
d. gestational diabetes.

neural tube defects.

Folate builds mature red blood cells throughout pregnancy and is particularly needed during the early periconceptional period to ensure healthy embryonic tissue development and prevent malformation of the neural tube.


The B-complex vitamins are required in greater amounts during pregnancy because
a. fetal demands for the vitamins are high.
b. more hemoglobin is synthesized.
c. the vitamins are excreted in greater quantities.
d. metabolic activities increase.

metabolic activities increase.


Daily intake of vitamin C should be increased during pregnancy because it
a. is an important element in tissue growth.
b. plays an important role in protein synthesis.
c. is necessary for the energy-producing pathways.
d. is important in development of bones in the fetus.

is an important element in tissue growth.

Vitamins A and C are needed in higher amounts during pregnancy because they are both important elements of tissue growth.


Drinking 3 to 4 cups of milk a day during pregnancy is recommended because it is a good source of
a. folate.
b. iron.
c. vitamin D.
d. vitamin C.

vitamin D.

Milk is a good source of vitamin D along with calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium for fetal development of bones and teeth as well as for the mother’s own body needs.


A recommendation for a pregnant woman with morning sickness may include
a. a meal of hot soup and Gatorade.
b. lemonade with added sugar and peppermint sticks.
c. a glass of hot decaffeinated tea with each meal.
d. whole-wheat toast with small amount of light butter and small piece of fruit.

whole-wheat toast with small amount of light butter and small piece of fruit.


A condition of severe, prolonged, and persistent vomiting during pregnancy is called
a. hyperemesis gravidarum.
b. placenta previa.
c. hypergastritis.
d. hyperbulimia.

hyperemesis gravidarum.

is morning sickness in early pregnancy that progresses from a mild state to a severe and prolonged state requiring medical treatment.


Constipation during pregnancy often is caused by
a. increased food intake.
b. increased milk intake.
c. intake of low-fiber foods.
d. placental hormones that cause intestinal muscles to relax.

placental hormones that cause intestinal muscles to relax.

Constipation during pregnancy often is caused by placental hormones that cause the intestinal muscles to relax. It usually is seen in the latter part of pregnancy when pressure on the enlarging uterus is increased.


An acceptable ending pregnancy weight for a normal-weight woman whose prepregnancy weight is 125 lb is _____ lb.
a. 130 to 135
b. 135 to 145
c. 145 to 150
d. 150 to 160

150 to 160

Weight gain for a normal-weight woman with a body mass index of 19.8 to 26 is 25 to 35 lb. Thus 125 lb + 25 to 35 lb = 150 lb to 160 lb.


Total weight gain during the first trimester should be approximately _____ lb.
a. 1 to 2
b. 2 to 4
c. 6 to 10
d. 10 to 15

2 to 4


A pregnancy is considered high risk if the mother
a. is 16 years old.
b. is vegetarian.
c. works full time.
d. exercises four or five times per week.

is 16 years old.


A pregnant adolescent is at risk because she
a. does not know how to care for herself.
b. has not established good eating habits.
c. is still in a growth stage of development.
d. will not know about the pregnancy until after the fetal organs have formed.

is still in a growth stage of development.

The physiologic demands of the pregnancy can compromise the teenager’s needs for her own unfinished growth and development.


A very overweight pregnant woman older than age 30 years is at high risk for
a. anemia.
b. gestational diabetes.
c. edema.
d. phenylketonuria

gestational diabetes.


During pregnancy, women should be encouraged not to
a. exercise.
b. have sexual intercourse.
c. drink alcoholic beverages.
d. drink decaffeinated coffee.

drink alcoholic beverages


The most common cause of anemia during pregnancy is
a. folic acid deficiency.
b. lack of intrinsic factor.
c. iron deficiency.
d. vitamin C deficiency.

iron deficiency.


Sources of folate include
a. fruit juices.
b. green leafy vegetables.
c. whole grains.
d. citrus fruits.

green leafy vegetables.

Folate is found in food sources such as green leafy vegetables, legumes, yeast, chicken, beef, and liver.


The finding of glycosuria during a routine laboratory test may suggest that the woman has
a. anemia.
b. gestational diabetes.
c. phenylketonuria.
d. hypertension.

gestational diabetes.

Gestational diabetes presents with glycosuria or sugar spilling over into the urine as well as other predisposing factors, including age 30 years and older; those who are overweight and have a history of previously unexplained stillbirths; delivery of large babies weighing 9 lb or more; habitual abortions; births of babies with multiple congenital defects; and family history of diabetes or ethnicity associated with a high incidence of diabetes.


High blood pressure and the accumulation of protein in the urine may be signs of
a. preeclampsia.
b. hyperemesis.
c. alcoholism.
d. gestational diabetes.


High blood pressure can be fatal to the mother and fetus. If symptoms progress with the accumulation of proteinuria, the condition is referred to as preeclampsia.


Three important factors that support adequate lactation are
a. diet, exercise, and vitamin supplements.
b. intake of dairy products, fluids, and rest.
c. diet, fluids, and rest and relaxation.
d. intake of bland foods and adequate fluids.

diet, fluids, and rest and relaxation.


Nutrition counselors should encourage pregnant teenagers to
a. avoid fast food.
b. eat foods from all basic five food groups.
c. drink fat-free (skim) rather than whole milk.
d. eat foods high in dietary fiber.

eat foods from all basic five food groups

to support fetal development as well as their own growth and development needs.


Advantages of breastfeeding for the mother include
a. less fluid retention.
b. rapid weight loss.
c. fewer maternal infections.
d. convenience and economy.

convenience and economy.

include benefits to both mother and baby, such as the ability of human milk to meet the unique needs of the infant, maternity wards supporting the practice of successful lactation, community support for breastfeeding, and convenience and economy.


During pregnancy, intake of caffeine for a 132-lb woman should be
a. avoided.
b. limited to 100 mg of coffee per day.
c. limited to 300 mg of coffee per day.
d. unlimited in quantity.

limited to 300 mg of coffee per day.\

The overall conclusion is that moderate amounts of caffeine (5 to 6 mg/kg/day) throughout the day do not have negative effects on reproduction or fetal health. Thus, 60-kg (132-lb)  5 = 300 mg of caffeine/day.


The best food choice that provides a source of folate is
a. spinach.
b. lemonade.
c. corn chips.
d. sausage patty.


Food sources of folate include enriched flour and grains, green leafy vegetables, legumes, soybeans, wheat germ, orange juice, asparagus, and broccoli.