Flashcards in Weight Management Deck (31)
When energy intake exceeds energy expenditure, the result may be
Obesity generally means that a person's body weight exceeds ideal body weight for height by at least
The most important factor in determining fatness or leanness is
c. body composition.
An example of an extreme weight-loss measure is
a. a sound food plan.
b. aerobic exercise.
c. behavior modification.
Extreme practices to lose weight include fasting, fad diets, macronutrient restrictions, and clothing and body wraps.
The most precise method for determining body composition is
a. skinfold calipers.
b. body weight.
c. underwater weighing.
d. fitness testing.
Underwater, or hydrostatic, weighing is a precise method to determine body composition. This method requires complete submersion of the client in water. The person must exhale as much air as possible and stay underwater for a few seconds to get an accurate reading.
It is difficult to define “ideal weight” because
a. body weight increases with age.
b. men tend to weigh more than women.
c. body weight is largely determined by genetics.
d. a wide range of weights can be associated with good health.
a wide range of weights can be associated with good health.
During puberty, a girl begins menstruation when her body fat level reaches approximately
Menstruation begins when female body fat reaches 20% of body weight. This is the amount needed for ovulation and support for healthy pregnancy.
A teenage girl who has a distorted body image and refuses to maintain an acceptable body weight should be evaluated for
a. anorexia nervosa.
b. bulimia nervosa.
d. compulsive dieting.
Health problems related to obesity include
a. hypertension and lung disease.
b. hypertension and diabetes.
c. diabetes and cancer.
d. cancer and asthma.
hypertension and diabetes.
Several studies suggest that the people who have the lowest risk of death are
a. greatly overweight.
b. slightly overweight.
c. slightly underweight.
d. greatly underweight.
To survive, the minimal amount of body weight that may consist of body fat for a 120-lb woman is approximately _____ lb.
The minimal percentage of body weight that may consist of body fat is 3% in men and 8% in women; so, 120 lb (0.08) = 9.6 lbs. Some body fat is essential to survival. Every cell membrane in the body has fat molecules in it, and fat is used for insulation and many other functions.
Mary is a 32-year-old woman who admits to repeated episodes of eating large quantities of food at one sitting, including two boxes of cookies, a family-size bag of chips, six candy bars, and even more at times, then vomits to rid her body of the food. This would be an example of
a. anorexia nervosa.
b. bulimia nervosa.
d. compulsive overeating.
A 2-lb increase in fat is the kilocalorie equivalent of _____ kcal.
One pound of fat is the kilocalorie equivalent of 3500 kcal, so 2 lb would be equivalent to 7000 kcal.
A major contributing factor to the increase in obesity in the United States is
a. excessive alcohol intake.
b. excessive sugar intake.
c. lack of exercise.
d. lack of concern about weight control.
lack of exercise.
Effective methods for weight reduction include
b. sauna suits.
c. the drug phenylpropylamine.
d. behavior modification.
- designed to help change patterns that contribute to excessive weight, such as excess food and eating as well as lack of exercise.
Surgical techniques used for weight reduction are
a. helpful but expensive.
b. the only alternative for extreme obesity.
c. associated with significant risks.
d. not effective.
associated with significant risks.
Significant risks are associated with surgical techniques for weight reduction along with other problems and side effects. Inherent risk of surgery and postsurgery malnutrition are critical issues that should be thoroughly addressed with the patient.
In all probability, the most significant factor in the development of obesity is
a. genetics and family food patterns.
b. psychological influences.
c. social influences.
d. physiologic influences.
genetics and family food patterns.
If a child has obese parents, the likelihood of the child also being obese is
a. no different from that of any other child.
b. very great.
c. very low.
d. dependent on other environmental factors.
Up to 80% of the predisposition to obesity is from genetic factors. However, a genetic influence is not the determining factor. The daily life, environment, and habits the person chooses influence the expression of this gene trait.
Expression of genetic factors
a. determines an individual’s body weight.
b. influences an individual’s chance of becoming overweight.
c. cannot be overcome by diet and exercise habits.
d. is solely responsible for similarities in body weight within families.
influences an individual’s chance of becoming overweight.
The most important key to a successful weight-loss program is
a. personal motivation.
c. dietary restriction.
d. a good nutrition counselor.
Food behaviors of value in a weight-reduction program include
a. eating quickly.
b. choosing small portions.
c. eating while doing other activities.
d. skipping meals.
choosing small portions.
To lose 2 lb over a 2-week period, caloric intake would need to be reduced by _____ kcal/day.
Rationale: To lose 2 lb in 2 weeks, a decrease of 500 kcal/day would need to occur.
Clinically severe or significant obesity is defined as a BMI of
a. 40 or greater or a BMI of 35-39 with at least one obesity-related disorder.
b. 35 or greater or a BMI of 35-39 with at least three obesity-related disorders.
c. 35 or greater with at least two obesity-related disorders.
d. 30 with hypertension and high blood sugar.
40 or greater or a BMI of 35-39 with at least one obesity-related disorder.
In young, healthy, adult men, the percentage of body weight that is fat is between
a. 3% and 5%.
b. 5% and 12%.
c. 8% and 22%.
d. 20% and 35%.
8% and 22%.
The percentage of body weight that is fat in healthy adult men aged 34 years or younger is between 8% and 22%. The percentage of fat in women is 20% to 35%.
A hormone that seems to control eating behavior and fat storage is
d. growth hormone.
The obesity gene encodes for a hormone-like protein believed to play a role in determining a person’s set point for fat storage.
Dangers associated with the use of very-low-calorie diets include
b. decreased metabolic rate.
c. sleep disorders.
decreased metabolic rate.
Very-low-calorie diets can possibly cause semistarvation (e.g., acidosis, low blood pressure, electrolyte loss, tissue protein loss, and decreased basal metabolic rate).
Body wraps result in a loss of
a. muscle tissue.
c. body fat.
Body wraps result in the loss of body water. Special “sauna suits” or body wrapping claims to help weight loss in certain spots of the body or clear up so-called cellulite tissue (the term cellulite is not a scientific term). The resulting small weight loss is caused by temporary water loss.
The rate of weight loss by overweight adults should not exceed _____ lb/week.
a. 1 to 2
b. 2 to 4
c. 3 to 5
d. 4 to 6
1 to 2
Problems associated with bulimia nervosa include
a. dry skin.
b. breathing difficulties.
c. abnormal hair growth.
d. erosion of dental enamel.
erosion of dental enamel
is a result of stomach acid coating the teeth while vomiting. Additional oral problems include oral mucosal irritation, decreased salivary secretions, and dry mouth.